Differential distribution of retinoic acid synthesis in the chicken embryo as determined by immunolocalization of the retinoic acid synthetic enzyme, RALDH-2.
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6-29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and discrete patterns of retinoic acid synthesis in the embryo, particularly within the somitic mesoderm, lateral mesoderm, kidney, heart, and spinal motor neurons. Prior to somitogenesis, RALDH-2-IR is present in the paraxial mesoderm with a rostral boundary at the level of the presumptive first somite; as the somites form, they exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR. Cervical presomitic mesoderm exhibits RALDH-2-IR but thoracic presomitic mesoderm does not. Neural crest cells do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2, but migrating crest cells are associated with RALDH-2 expressing mesoderm. The developing limb mesoderm expresses little RALDH-2-IR; however, RALDH-2-IR is strongly expressed in tissues adjacent to the limb. The most lateral, earliest-projecting motor neurons at all levels of the spinal cord exhibit RALDH-2-IR. Subsequently, many additional motor neurons in the brachial and lumbar cord regions express RALDH-2-IR. Motor neuronal expression of RALDH-2-IR is present in the growing axons as they extend to the periphery, indicating a potential role of retinoic acid in nerve influences on peripheral differentiation. With the exception of a transient expression in the facial/vestibulocochlear nucleus, cranial motor neurons do not express detectable levels of RALDH-2-IR. (+info)
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments.
Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP. (+info)
Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse.
Mouse fetuses carrying targeted inactivations of both the RAR(&agr;) and the RARbeta genes display a variety of malformations in structures known to be partially derived from the mesenchymal neural crest originating from post-otic rhombomeres (e.g. thymus and great cephalic arteries) (Ghyselinck, N., Dupe, V., Dierich, A., Messaddeq, N., Garnier, J.M., Rochette-Egly, C., Chambon, P. and Mark M. (1997). Int. J. Dev. Biol. 41, 425-447). In a search for neural crest defects, we have analysed the rhombomeres, cranial nerves and pharyngeal arches of these double null mutants at early embryonic stages. The mutant post-otic cranial nerves are disorganized, indicating that RARs are involved in the patterning of structures derived from neurogenic neural crest, even though the lack of RARalpha and RARbeta has no detectable effect on the number and migration path of neural crest cells. Interestingly, the double null mutation impairs early developmental processes known to be independent of the neural crest e.g., the initial formation of the 3rd and 4th branchial pouches and of the 3rd, 4th and 6th arch arteries. The double mutation also results in an enlargement of rhombomere 5, which is likely to be responsible for the induction of supernumerary otic vesicles, in a disappearance of the rhombomere 5/6 boundary, and in profound alterations of rhombomere identities. In the mutant hindbrain, the expression domain of kreisler is twice its normal size and the caudal stripe of Krox-20 extends into the presumptive rhombomeres 6 and 7 region. In this region, Hoxb-1 is ectopically expressed, Hoxb-3 is ectopically up-regulated and Hoxd-4 expression is abolished. These data, which indicate that retinoic acid signaling through RARalpha and/or RARbeta is essential for the specification of rhombomere identities and for the control of caudal hindbrain segmentation by restricting the expression domains of kreisler and of Krox-20, also strongly suggest that this signaling plays a crucial role in the posteriorization of the hindbrain neurectoderm. (+info)
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is a neurotrophic survival factor for lumbar but not for other somatic motoneurons in the chick embryo.
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is expressed in the developing limb muscles of the chick embryo during the period of spinal motoneuron (MN) programmed cell death, and its receptor c-met is expressed in lumbar MNs during this same period. Although cultured motoneurons from brachial, thoracic, and lumbar segments are all rescued from cell death by chick embryo muscle extract (CMX) as well as by other specific trophic agents, HGF/SF only promotes the survival of lumbar MNs. Similarly, treatment of embryos in ovo with exogenous HGF/SF rescues lumbar but not other somatic MNs from cell death. Blocking antibodies to HGF/SF (anti-HGF) reduce the effects of CMX on MN survival in vitro and decrease the number of lumbar MNs in vivo. The expression of c-met on MNs in vivo is regulated by a limb-derived trophic signal distinct from HGF/SF. HGF/SF is a potent, select, and physiologically relevant survival factor for a subpopulation of developing spinal MNs in the lumbar segments of the chick embryo. (+info)
Neuropilin-2 regulates the development of selective cranial and sensory nerves and hippocampal mossy fiber projections.
Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 bind differentially to different class 3 semaphorins and are thought to provide the ligand-binding moieties in receptor complexes mediating repulsive responses to these semaphorins. Here, we have studied the function of neuropilin-2 through analysis of a neuropilin-2 mutant mouse, which is viable and fertile. Repulsive responses of sympathetic and hippocampal neurons to Sema3F but not to Sema3A are abolished in the mutant. Marked defects are observed in the development of several cranial nerves, in the initial central projections of spinal sensory axons, and in the anterior commissure, habenulo-interpeduncular tract, and the projections of hippocampal mossyfiber axons in the infrapyramidal bundle. Our results show that neuropilin-2 is an essential component of the Sema3F receptor and identify key roles for neuropilin-2 in axon guidance in the PNS and CNS. (+info)
Vitamin A deficiency results in the dose-dependent acquisition of anterior character and shortening of the caudal hindbrain of the rat embryo.
The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency. Retinoid has been proposed to be a posteriorizing factor during hindbrain development, although direct evidence in the mammalian embryo is lacking. In the present study, pregnant vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats were fed purified diets containing varying levels of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA; 0, 0.5, 1.5, 6, 12, 25, 50, 125, or 250 microg/g diet) or were supplemented with retinol. Hindbrain development was studied from embryonic day 10 to 12.5 ( approximately 6 to 40 somites). Normal morphogenesis was observed in all embryos from groups fed 250 microg atRA/g diet or retinol. The most caudal region of the hindbrain was the most sensitive to retinoid insufficiency, as evidenced by a loss of the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) in embryos from the 125 microg atRA/g diet group. Further reduction of atRA to 50 microg/g diet led to the loss of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII and associated sensory ganglia IX and X in all embryos as well as the loss of hindbrain segmentation caudal to the rhombomere (r) 3/4 border in a subset of embryos. Dysmorphic orthotopic otic vesicles or immature otic-like vesicles in both orthotopic and caudally ectopic locations were also observed. As the level of atRA was reduced, a loss of caudal hindbrain segmentation was observed in all embryos and the incidence of otic vesicle abnormalities increased. Perturbations in hindbrain segmentation, cranial nerve formation, and otic vesicle development were associated with abnormal patterning of the posterior hindbrain. Embryos from VAD dams fed between 0.5 and 50 microg atRA/g diet exhibited Hoxb-1 protein expression along the entire neural tube caudal to the r3/r4 border at a time when it should be restricted to r4. Krox-20 protein expression was expanded in r3 but absent or reduced in presumptive r5. Hoxd-4 mRNA expression was absent in the posterior hindbrain, and the rostral limit of Hoxb-5 protein expression in the neural tube was anteriorized, suggesting that the most posterior hindbrain region (r7/r8) had been deleted and/or improperly patterned. Thus, when limiting amounts of atRA are provided to VAD dams, the caudal portion of the hindbrain is shortened and possesses r4/r5-like characteristics, with this region finally exhibiting r4-like gene expression when retinoid is restricted even more severely. Thus, regions of the anterior hindbrain (i.e., r3 and r4) appear to be greatly expanded, whereas the posterior hindbrain (r5-r8) is reduced or absent. This work shows that retinoid plays a critical role in patterning, segmentation, and neurogenesis of the caudal hindbrain and serves as an essential posteriorizing signal for this region of the central nervous system in the mammal. (+info)
Development of the cavernous sinus in the fetal period: a morphological study.
The development and morphological structure of the lateral sellar compartment (LSC), an interdural space containing the cavernous sinus (CS), cranial nerves, and internal carotid artery (ICA), was investigated by histological examination of sections of the LSC and cerebral venograms from human fetal specimens. Twenty-eight LSC coronal sections were obtained from 14 fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation. Venograms of 11 other fetuses of 13-32 weeks' gestation were studied to observe changes in venous drainage. The CS appeared as a collection of small venous canals with an endothelial layer. These venous canals gradually became much larger through expansion and unification. The CS and basilar venous plexus were demonstrated as a faint cluster of small vessels on venograms obtained after 13 weeks' gestation. The dura mater increased in thickness and collagen fiber networks developed around all the components in the LSC after 23 weeks' gestation. The LSC lateral wall could not be histologically differentiated as separate multiple layers. Branching and joining of the cranial nerve fascicles were completed with the envelopment of collagen fibers after 23 weeks' gestation. The ICA at 13-15 weeks' gestation ran straight within the LSC, becoming tortuous before birth. CS formation occurs through the development of venous canals without smooth muscle layers, followed by web-formation by collagen fibers in the mesenchymal interstices. LSC formation, including the dense dura mater and an internal structure like that seen in the adult, is largely completed before birth. (+info)
Facial palsy in cerebral venous thrombosis : transcranial stimulation and pathophysiological considerations.
BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsy in cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CVT) is rare, its pathophysiology remains unclear, and data from electrophysiological examinations in such patients are missing. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with familial protein S deficiency who was admitted with extensive multiple CVT. Two weeks after onset of symptoms, she developed isolated right peripheral facial palsy, and MR venography showed segmental occlusion of the ipsilateral transverse sinus. Complete recovery of facial palsy occurred concomitant with recanalization of the transverse sinus. Facial neurography, including transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve and related motor cortex, ruled out a coincidental idiopathic palsy and revealed conduction block proximal to the facial canal. CONCLUSIONS: Facial palsy in our patient was caused by transient neurapraxia in the intracranial segment of the nerve. We suggest that elevated venous transmural pressure in the nerve's satellite vein, which belongs to the affected drainage territory of the transverse sinus, might have caused venous blood-brain barrier dysfunction in the intrinsic vascular system of the nerve, with leakage of fluids and ions into the endoneurial space and thus an increase in interstitial resistance. (+info)