(1/525) T cells contribute to disease severity during coxsackievirus B4 infection.
By using a model of coxsackievirus B4-induced disease, the question of whether tissue damage is due to the virus or to immune-mediated mechanisms was addressed. Both viral replication and T-cell function were implicated in contributing to the severity of disease. Three stages (I to III) of disease, which correspond to periods of high viral titers, low viral titers, and no infectious virus, have been identified. Stage I disease is considered to be primarily the result of viral replication. Immunopathological mechanisms appear to contribute to the severity of stage II and III disease. To investigate the role of T cells in contributing to the severity of disease, viral infection in CD8 knockout (ko) mice and CD4 ko mice was analyzed. CD8 T-cell responses appear to be beneficial during early, viral disease but detrimental in later disease when viral titers are diminishing. CD4 ko mice, unlike the parental strain, survived infection. Viral replication was lower in the CD4 ko mice. Was survival due to decreased viral replication or to the lack of T-helper-cell function? To investigate further the role of T helper cells in contributing to tissue damage, viral infection in two additional ko strains (interleukin-4 [IL-4] ko and gamma interferon ko strains) was examined. A clear correlation between viral replication and the outcome of infection was not observed. The absence of IL-4, which may influence T-helper-cell subset development, was advantageous during early viral disease but deleterious in later disease. The results suggest that T-cell-mediated immunity is both beneficial and detrimental during coxsackievirus B4 infection. (+info)
(2/525) Viral myocarditis: identification of five differentially expressed genes in coxsackievirus B3-infected mouse heart.
Differences in host susceptibility to viral myocarditis caused by a given strain of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) are known to be largely related to host genetic factors. Little is known, however, about the key genes that encode determinants (mediators) of myocarditis development or the nature of injury. To identify these genes and further understand the molecular mechanisms of the disease process, we have used a murine model and the differential display technique to fingerprint mRNAs from CVB3-infected mouse hearts. Total RNA was extracted from hearts of 4- and 10-week-old A/J(H-2(a)) mice at day 4 after CVB3 infection, and mRNAs were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and subsequently analyzed on polyacrylamide DNA sequencing gels. The differentially displayed bands were confirmed by Northern hybridization using the bands as cDNA probes. Twenty-eight upregulated or downregulated bands were selected from the sequencing gels; among these, 2 upregulated and 3 downregulated cDNA fragments were confirmed by Northern hybridization. DNA sequence analysis and GenBank searching have determined that 4 of the 5 candidate genes are homologous to genes encoding Mus musculus inducible GTPase, mouse mitochondrial hydrophobic peptide (a subunit of NADH dehydrogenase), mouse beta-globin, and Homo sapiens cAMP-regulated response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP), respectively. The remaining candidate gene matches an unpublished cDNA clone, M musculus Nip21 mRNA (GenBank accession number, AF035207), which is homologous to human Nip2, a Bcl-2 binding protein. Our data suggest preliminarily that both structural and nonstructural genes are involved in myocarditis development. For the structural gene, beta-globin, we further confirmed its downregulation at the protein level by measuring the mean cell volume of red blood cells and found it was marginally reduced in the CVB3-infected group (P<0.06), with no change in hemoglobin concentration. Cardiac myoglobin concentration was also measured and found to be decreased (P<0.005), with a parallel decrease in total soluble protein in the CVB3-infected mouse myocardium (P<0.01). We also noted that the ratio of myoglobin to total protein was not significantly changed; this may be due to the downregulation of additional genes in the host heart, a number being observed on the differential display gels. The significant downregulation of beta-globin major gene expression in the heart may be relevant to impaired cardiac function in both the early and late postinfection period. The other identified nonstructural genes are known to be involved in regulation of gene expression, signal transduction pathways, and apoptotic cell death. The altered expression of structural and nonstructural genes may play important roles in the mediation of myocarditis development and perhaps other pathological processes in the heart. (+info)
(3/525) Hormonal regulation of CD4(+) T-cell responses in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in mice.
Coxsackievirus B3 infection causes significant cardiac inflammation in male, but not female, B1.Tg.Ealpha mice. This gender difference in disease susceptibility correlates with selective induction of CD4(+) Th1 (gamma interferon-positive) cell responses in animals with testosterone, whereas estradiol promotes preferential CD4(+) Th2 (interleukin-4 positive [IL-4(+)]) cell responses. Differences in immune deviation of CD4(+) T cells cannot be explained by variation in B7-1 or B7-2 expression. Infection significantly upregulated both molecules, but no differences were detected between estradiol- and testosterone-treated groups. Significantly increased numbers of activated (CD69(+)) T cells expressing the gammadelta T-cell receptor were found in male and testosterone-treated male and female mice. In vivo depletion of gammadelta+ cells by using monoclonal antibodies inhibited myocarditis and resulted in a shift from a Th1 to Th2 response phenotype. Taken together, our results indicate that testosterone promotes a CD4(+) Th1 cell response and myocarditis by promoting increased gammadelta+ cell activation. (+info)
(4/525) gamma delta+ T cells regulate major histocompatibility complex class II(IA and IE)-dependent susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced autoimmune myocarditis.
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection induces myocardial inflammation and myocyte necrosis in some, but not all, strains of mice. C57BL/6 mice, which inherently lack major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II IE antigen, develop minimal cardiac lesions despite high levels of virus in the heart. The present experiments evaluate the relative roles of class II IA and IE expression on myocarditis susceptibility in four transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strains differing in MHC class II antigen expression. Animals lacking MHC class II IE antigen (C57BL/6 [IA+ IE-] and ABo [IA- IE-]) developed minimal cardiac lesions subsequent to infection despite high concentrations of virus in the heart. In contrast, strains expressing IE (ABo Ealpha [IA- IE+] and Bl.Tg.Ealpha [IA+ IE+]) had substantial cardiac injury. Myocarditis susceptibility correlated to a Th1 (gamma interferon-positive) cell response in the spleen, while disease resistance correlated to a preferential Th2 (interleukin-4-positive) phenotype. Vgamma/Vdelta analysis indicates that distinct subpopulations of gamma delta+ T cells are activated after CVB3 infection of C57BL/6 and Bl.Tg.Ealpha mice. Depletion of gamma delta+ T cells abrogated myocarditis susceptibility in IE+ animals and resulted in a Th1-->Th2 phenotype shift. These studies indicate that the MHC class II antigen haplotype controls myocarditis susceptibility, that this control is most likely mediated through the type of gamma delta T cells activated during CVB3 infection, and finally that different subpopulations of gamma delta+ T cells may either promote or inhibit Th1 cell responses. (+info)
(5/525) Activity of pleconaril against enteroviruses.
The activity of pleconaril in cell culture against prototypic enterovirus strains and 215 clinical isolates of the most commonly isolated enterovirus serotypes was examined. The latter viruses were isolated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 1970s and 1980s from clinically ill subjects. Pleconaril at a concentration of =0.03 microM inhibited the replication of 50% of all clinical isolates tested. Ninety percent of the isolates were inhibited at a drug concentration of =0.18 microM. The most sensitive serotype, echovirus serotype 11, was also the most prevalent enterovirus in the United States from 1970 to 1983. Pleconaril was further tested for oral activity in three animal models of lethal enterovirus infection: coxsackievirus serotype A9 infection in suckling mice, coxsackievirus serotype A21 strain Kenny infection in weanling mice, and coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M infection in adult mice. Treatment with pleconaril increased the survival rate in all three models for both prophylactic and therapeutic dosing regimens. Moreover, pleconaril dramatically reduced virus levels in target tissues of coxsackievirus serotype B3 strain M-infected animals. Pleconaril represents a promising new drug candidate for potential use in the treatment of human enteroviral infections. (+info)
(6/525) Susceptibility to myocarditis is dependent on the response of alphabeta T lymphocytes to coxsackieviral infection.
Viral myocarditis is an important cause of heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. T lymphocytes are implicated in myocardial damage in murine models of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. We used knockout mice lacking CD4 (CD4(-/-)), CD8 (CD8(-/-)), both coreceptors (CD4(-/-)CD8(-/-)), or the T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRbeta(-/-)) to address the contribution of T-cell subpopulations to host susceptibility to CVB3 myocarditis. Severity of disease was magnified in CD8(-/-) mice but attenuated in CD4(-/-) mice, consistent with a pathogenic role for CD4(+) lymphocytes. Elimination of both CD4 and CD8 molecules from T lymphocytes by genetic knockout better protected mice from myocarditis, demonstrating that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contribute to host susceptibility. The same benefit occurred in TCRbeta(-/-) mice, with prolonged survival and minimal myocardial disease observed after CVB3 infection. Elevated interferon-gamma and decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression are associated with attenuated myocardial damage in CD4(-/-)CD8(-/-) mice. These results show that the presence of TCRalphabeta(+) T cells enhances host susceptibility to myocarditis. The severity of myocardial damage and associated mortality are dependent on the predominant T-cell type available to respond to CVB3 infection. One mechanism by which CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets influence the pathogenesis of myocarditis may involve specific cytokine expression patterns. (+info)
(7/525) Coxsackievirus B4 myocarditis in an orangutan.
A 37-year-old female orangutan died at the zoological garden. Autopsy examination demonstrated severe coxsackievirus B4 myocarditis immunohistochemically as a cause of the death. Apoptosis of the cardiac muscle cells was observed using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick endo labeling method and was considered to play a role in the myocarditis. Congestion of the liver and both lungs due to cardiac failure was also observed. Coxsackievirus infection is found frequently in the Okinawan human population. The present orangutan's infection might have come from visitors who were allowed to go near the orangutan. Malignant tumors, severe suppurative infections, and intestinal parasite infections were not observed. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in lymph nodes, but there was no Burkitt's lymphoma. (+info)
(8/525) The role of B lymphocytes in coxsackievirus B3 infection.
Coxsackieviruses are important human pathogens, frequently causing myocarditis, pancreatitis, and a variety of less severe diseases. B lymphocytes appear central to the interaction between these viruses and their mammalian hosts, because agammaglobulinemic humans, genetically incapable of antibody production, are susceptible to chronic infections by coxsackieviruses and related enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and echovirus. However, recent studies show that Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) infects B lymphocytes soon after infection, suggesting the possibility that these cells may play some role in virus dissemination and/or that the virus may be able to modulate the host immune response. We analyzed the role of B lymphocytes in CVB infection and confirmed that CVB infects B lymphocytes, and extended these findings to show that this is a productive infection involving approximately 1 to 10% of the cells; however, infectious center assays show that other splenocytes are infected at approximately the same frequency. Virus is readily detectable by in situ hybridization in the spleen of immunocompetent mice but is difficult to detect in mice deficient in B cells (BcKO mice), consistent with much of the splenic signal being the result of B cell infection. Surprisingly, given the extent of their infection, B cells express barely detectable levels of the murine coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (mCAR), suggesting that another means of cell entry may be used. We found no evidence of B cell depletion following CVB infection, indicating that this is not the explanation for the transient immunosuppression previously reported. Virus replication and dissemination are slightly delayed in BcKO mice, consistent with B cells' playing a role as an important early target of infection and/or a means to distribute the virus to many tissues. In addition, we show that BcKO mice recapitulate a central feature of human agammaglobulinemia: CVB establishes chronic infection in a variety of organs (heart, liver, brain, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen). In most of these tissues the viral titers remain high (10(5)-10(8) plaque forming units (pfu) per gram of tissue) for the life of the mouse, and in several there is severe pathology, particularly severe myocardial fibrosis with ventricular dilation, reminiscent of the dilated cardiomyopathy seen in humans with chronic enteroviral myocarditis. Transfer of B and/or T cells from non-immune mice had no discernible effect, whereas equivalent transfers from immune mice often resulted in transient or permanent disappearance of detectable CVB. (+info)