(1/113) The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII is required for angiogenesis and heart development.
The embryonic expression of COUP-TFII, an orphan nuclear receptor, suggests that it may participate in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions required for organogenesis. Targeted deletion of the COUP-TFII gene results in embryonic lethality with defects in angiogenesis and heart development. COUP-TFII mutants are defective in remodeling the primitive capillary plexus into large and small microcapillaries. In the COUP-TFII mutant heart, the atria and sinus venosus fail to develop past the primitive tube stage. Reciprocal interactions between the endothelium and the mesenchyme in the vascular system and heart are essential for normal development of these systems. In fact, the expression of Angiopoietin-1, a proangiogenic soluble factor thought to mediate the mesenchymal-endothelial interactions during heart development and vascular remodeling, is down-regulated in COUP-TFII mutants. This down-regulation suggests that COUP-TFII may be required for bidirectional signaling between the endothelial and mesenchymal compartments essential for proper angiogenesis and heart development. (+info)
(2/113) Expression of ptc and gli genes in talpid3 suggests bifurcation in Shh pathway.
talpid3 is an embryonic-lethal chicken mutation in a molecularly un-characterised autosomal gene. The recessive, pleiotropic phenotype includes polydactylous limbs with morphologically similar digits. Previous analysis established that hox-D and bmp genes, that are normally expressed posteriorly in the limb bud in response to a localised, posterior source of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) are expressed symmetrically across the entire anteroposterior axis in talpid3 limb buds. In contrast, Shh expression itself is unaffected. Here we examine expression of patched (ptc), which encodes a component of the Shh receptor, and is probably itself a direct target of Shh signalling, to establish whether talpid3 acts in the Shh pathway. We find that ptc expression is significantly reduced in talpid3 embryos. We also demonstrate that talpid3 function is not required for Shh signal production but is required for normal response to Shh signals, implicating talpid3 in transduction of Shh signals in responding cells. Our analysis of expression of putative components of the Shh pathway, gli1, gli3 and coupTFII shows that genes regulated by Shh are either ectopically expressed or no longer responsive to Shh signals in talpid3 limbs, suggesting possible bifurcation in the Shh pathway. We also describe genetic mapping of gli1, ptc, shh and smoothened in chickens and confirm by co-segregation analysis that none of these genes correspond to talpid3. (+info)
(3/113) Heterodimeric interactions between chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor family members ARP1 and ear2.
Members of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors, which minimally includes COUP-TFI and ARP1, are highly expressed in brain and are generally considered to be constitutive repressors of transcription. We have used a yeast two-hybrid system to isolate proteins expressed in brain that interact with ARP1. One of the proteins isolated in this screen was Ear2, another orphan receptor that has been suggested to be a member of the COUP-TF subfamily. Here we demonstrate that ARP1 and Ear2 form heterodimers in solution and on directly repeated response elements with high efficiency and a specificity differing from that of homodimeric complexes composed of either receptor. ARP1 and Ear2 were observed to interact in mammalian cells, and the tissue distribution of Ear2 transcripts was found to overlap precisely with the expression pattern of ARP1 in several mouse tissues and embryonal carcinoma cell lines. Heterodimeric interactions between ARP1 and Ear2 may define a distinct pathway of orphan receptor signaling. (+info)
(4/113) Functional study of the E276Q mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha found in type 1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young: impaired synergy with chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II on the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 promoter.
Seven mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha gene have been shown to correlate with type 1 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY 1), a monogenic form of type 2 diabetes. Up to now, only the functional properties of two MODY 1 HNF-4alpha mutants, Q268X and V393I, have been investigated to address how the mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene, found by genetic studies, can give rise to impaired activities of mutated HNF-4alpha proteins and can cause this disease. The E276Q mutation results in a nonconservative substitution occurring in the HNF-4alpha E domain, which is involved in dimerization and transactivation activities as well as in protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors or coactivators. Using the mutated human HNF-4alpha2, we have found that, in the absence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP TFII), the E276Q substitution does not significantly affect the dimerization and transactivating activities of HNF-4alpha, at least on the promoters studied herein. On the other hand, in the presence of COUP TFII, the substitution impairs the enhancement of HNF-4-mediated activation of HNF-1 promoter. The impaired synergy between COUP TFII and HNF-4 on the HNF-1 promoter results from an alteration of their interaction. HNF-1 expression plays a crucial role in transactivation of insulin promoter and of numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in glucose homeostasis. Therefore, its downregulation resulting from the E276Q mutation in HNF-4alpha gene most probably impairs the function of pancreatic beta-cells. (+info)
(5/113) Dorsal and ventral retinal territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression.
Determination of the dorso-ventral dimension of the vertebrate retina is known to involve retinoic acid (RA), in that high RA activates expression of a ventral retinaldehyde dehydrogenase and low RA of a dorsal dehydrogenase. Here we show that in the early eye vesicle of the mouse embryo, expression of the dorsal dehydrogenase is preceded by, and transiently overlaps with, the RA-degrading oxidase CYP26. Subsequently in the embryonic retina, CYP26 forms a narrow horizontal boundary between the dorsal and ventral dehydrogenases, creating a trough between very high ventral and moderately high dorsal RA levels. Most of the RA receptors are expressed uniformly throughout the retina except for the RA-sensitive RARbeta, which is down-regulated in the CYP26 stripe. The orphan receptor COUP-TFII, which modulates RA responses, colocalizes with the dorsal dehydrogenase. The organization of the embryonic vertebrate retina into dorsal and ventral territories divided by a horizontal boundary has parallels to the division of the Drosophila eye disc into dorsal, equatorial and ventral zones, indicating that the similarities in eye morphogenesis extend beyond single molecules to topographical patterns. (+info)
(6/113) Sagittal band expression of COUP-TF2 gene in the developing cerebellum.
In the developing cerebellum, the medio-lateral compartmentalization of the adult cerebellum is preceded by the transient expression of factors which divide the cortex into similar parasagittal stripes. Here we report that COUP-TF2, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family which suppresses RA actions by forming heterodimers with RXR, shows a pattern of sagittal bands in developing mouse cerebellum. The band pattern changes according to the developmental stage. At embryonic day 13 it is expressed in the lateral half of the cerebellum, but at later stages the expression is divided into several parasagittal bands. By postnatal day 5 the COUP-TF2 expression substantially decreases to low, but detectable, levels. (+info)
(7/113) Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II, a new partner of the glucose response element of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene, acts as an inhibitor of the glucose response.
Transcription of the L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene is induced by glucose in the presence of insulin and repressed by glucagon via cyclic AMP. The DNA regulatory sequence responsible for mediating glucose and cyclic AMP responses, called glucose response element (GlRE), consists of two degenerated E boxes spaced by 5 base pairs and is able to bind basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper proteins, in particular the upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). From ex vivo and in vivo experiments, it appears that USFs are required for correct response of the L-PK gene to glucose, but their expression and binding activity are not known to be regulated by glucose. A genetic screen in yeast has allowed us to identify a novel transcriptional factor binding to the GlRE, i.e. the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII). Binding of COUP-TFII to the GlRE was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and COUP-TFII-containing complexes were detectable in liver nuclear extracts. Neither abundance nor binding activity of COUP-TFII appeared to be significantly regulated by diets. In footprinting experiments, two COUP-TFII-binding sites overlapping the E boxes were detected. Overexpression of COUP-TFII abrogated the USF-dependent transactivation of an artificial GlRE-dependent promoter in COS cells and the glucose responsiveness of the L-PK promoter in hepatocytes in primary culture. In addition, a mutated GlRE with increased affinity for USF and very low affinity for COUP-TFII conferred a dramatically decreased glucose responsiveness on the L-PK promoter in hepatocytes in primary culture by increasing activity of the reporter gene in low glucose condition. We propose that COUP-TFII could be a negative regulatory component of the glucose sensor complex assembled on the GlRE of the L-PK gene and most likely of other glucose-responsive genes as well. (+info)
(8/113) Functional interactions between C/EBP, Sp1, and COUP-TF regulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription in human brain cells.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia. However, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 gene expression in the CNS are poorly understood. The importance of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) for HIV-1 expression in cells of the immune system has been recently reported. In this study, we have examined the role and the molecular mechanisms by which proteins of the C/EBP family regulate HIV-1 gene transcription in human brain cells. We found that NF-IL6 acts as a potent activator of the long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription in microglial and oligodendroglioma cells. In contrast, C/EBPgamma inhibits NF-IL6-induced activation. Consistent with previous data, our transient expression results show cell-type-specific NF-IL6-mediated transactivation. In glial cells, full activation needs the presence of the C/EBP binding sites; however, NF-IL6 is still able to function via the minimal -40/+80 region. In microglial cells, C/EBP sites are not essential, since NF-IL6 acts through the -68/+80 LTR region, containing two binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Moreover, we show that functional interactions between NF-IL6 and Sp1 lead to synergistic transcriptional activation of the LTR in oligodendroglioma and to mutual repression in microglial cells. We further demonstrate that NF-IL6 physically interacts with the nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF), via its DNA binding domain, in vitro and in cells, which results in mutual transcriptional repression. These findings reveal how the interplay of NF-IL6 and C/EBPgamma, together with Sp1 and COUP-TF, regulates HIV-1 gene transcription in brain cells. (+info)