Chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: a double-blind placebo-controlled study with omeprazole.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is an important cause of chronic cough. There has been a lack of placebo-controlled trials treating GOR related chronic cough with antireflux therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of omeprazole on GOR related chronic cough. After excluding other common causes of cough, oesophageal pH monitoring was performed on 48 patients with chronic cough. Twenty-nine patients found to have GOR were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive omeprazole 40 mg o.d. or placebo for 8 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, patients were crossed over to the other treatment. Symptoms were recorded daily in a diary. Twenty-one patients completed both treatment periods. Cough (p=0.02) and gastric symptoms (p=0.003) improved significantly during the omeprazole treatment in twelve patients who received placebo during the first and omeprazole during the second 8-week period. In nine patients who received omeprazole during the first 8-week period, amelioration in cough reached statistical significance only after cessation of omeprazole. Gastric symptoms also remained minor during placebo in these nine patients. Omeprazole 40 mg o.d. seems to improve chronic cough in patients with gastrooesophageal reflux and the effect of omeprazole in ameliorating both cough and reflux symptoms continues after treatment ceases. (+info)
Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
BACKGROUND: Phenylpropanolamine is commonly found in appetite suppressants and cough or cold remedies. Case reports have linked the use of products containing phenylpropanolamine to hemorrhagic stroke, often after the first use of these products. To study the association, we designed a case-control study. METHODS: Men and women 18 to 49 years of age were recruited from 43 U.S. hospitals. Eligibility criteria included the occurrence of a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage within 30 days before enrollment and the absence of a previously diagnosed brain lesion. Random-digit dialing identified two matched control subjects per patient. RESULTS: There were 702 patients and 1376 control subjects. For women, the adjusted odds ratio was 16.58 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.51 to 182.21; P=0.02) for the association between the use of appetite suppressants containing phenylpropanolamine and the risk of a hemorrhagic stroke and 3.13 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 11.46; P=0.08) for the association with the first use of a product containing phenylpropanolamine. All first uses of phenylpropanolamine involved cough or cold remedies. For men and women combined, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.84 to 2.64; P=0.17) for the association between the use of a product containing phenylpropanolamine and the risk of a hemorrhagic stroke, 1.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.68 to 2.24; P=0.49) for the association with the use of cough or cold remedies that contained phenylpropanolamine, and 15.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.38 to 184.13; P=0.03) for the association with the use of appetite suppressants that contained phenylpropanolamine. An analysis in men showed no increased risk of a hemorrhagic stroke in association with the use of cough or cold remedies containing phenylpropanolamine. No men reported the use of appetite suppressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that phenylpropanolamine in appetite suppressants, and possibly in cough and cold remedies, is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke in women. (+info)
Endobronchial lipoma: a series of three cases and the role of electrocautery.
Lipomas are rare endobronchial tumors that may cause severe parenchymal damage due to bronchus obstruction and subsequent pneumonia. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and radical treatment are essential. We describe three cases of endobronchial lipoma. One patient presented with hemoptysis, two patients were initially diagnosed as COPD. They were all treated by electrocautery which achieved complete removal. We recommend electrocautery as an easy and cost-effective alternative for removal of intraluminal tumors including lipoma. (+info)
Health-related quality of life in long-term head and neck cancer survivors: a comparison with general population norms.
To examine the health-related quality of life (HRQL) in long-term head and neck (H&N) cancer survivors compared with general population norms. HRQL was assessed with three standardized questionnaires: the SF-36 Health Survey (Short Form 36) and the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, -Core 30 and -Head and Neck 35 cancer module). Altogether 135 H&N cancer patients (mean age 62 years, 31% females) of 151 survivors (89% acceptance) from a longitudinal HRQL study (n = 232) were included 3 years after diagnosis. The H&N cancer patients' SF-36 scores did not differ significantly from those of an age- and sex-matched sample (n = 871) from the Swedish normative population, except on the role-physical functioning scale. On the other hand, treatment-related side-effects and disease-specific problems (e.g., swallowing, local pain and dry mouth) measured by the H&N cancer module were, with few exceptions, significantly worse than norm values. Gender comparisons revealed that female H&N cancer patients generally scored better than the norms on both the SF-36 and the EORTC QLQ-C30, while the male patients scored significantly worse on most SF-36 scales. Patients > or =65 years more often scored worse than the norm than did patients <65. Clinically relevant differences were found on the majority of SF-36 scales in comparison of tumour sites, however, comparisons of patients with small (stage I+II) versus advanced (stage III+IV) tumours revealed few differences. Three years after diagnosis H&N cancer patients still suffer significant functional limitations/problems related to their disease and its treatment but these problems do not generally affect their overall HRQL. Tumour stage no longer differentiates HRQL at 3 years, however, factors related to the patients' age, gender and location of the tumour appear to have bearing on their reported health status. (+info)
Pelvic floor muscle contraction during a cough and decreased vesical neck mobility.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a voluntary pelvic muscle contraction initiated in preparation for a cough, a maneuver we call the Knack, significantly reduces vesical neck displacement. METHODS: A convenience sample of 22 women consisted of 11 young, continent nulliparas (mean age [+/- standard deviation] 24.8 +/- 7.0 years) and 11 older, incontinent paras (mean age [+/-SD] 66.9 +/- 3.9 years). With the use of perineal ultrasound, we quantified vesical neck displacement at rest and during coughs using caliper tracing and a coordinate system. The subjects coughed with and without voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction. RESULTS: Vesical neck mobility during coughs was significantly decreased when voluntary contraction was used: from a median (range) of 5.4 (20.0) mm without volitional contraction to 2.9 (18.3) mm with volitional contraction (P <.001). The younger women demonstrated a median (range) decrease in excursion from 4.6 (19.5) to 0.0 (17.0) mm (P =.007), and the older incontinent women demonstrated a median (range) decrease from 6.2 (10.0) to 3.5 (15.4) mm (P =.003). At rest, the median vesical neck position in the group of older incontinent women was significantly further dorsocaudal (P =.001) than in the younger women. CONCLUSION: A pelvic floor muscle contraction in preparation for, and throughout, a cough can augment proximal urethra support during stress, thereby reducing the amount of dorsocaudal displacement. (+info)
Effects of anti-reflux surgery on chronic cough and asthma in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
This two-group prospective study evaluated the effect of anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication) on 24 patients with severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and concomitant asthma (n=13) or chronic cough (n=11). Twenty-four hour oesophageal pH monitoring and lung function tests (FEV1, FVC) were done before and within 1 year after anti-reflux surgery. A diary was kept by the patient during the 4-week period prior to surgery and during 4-week periods 6 and 12 months postoperatively, with daily monitoring of peak expiratory flow rate, respiratory and reflux symptoms and medication. In non-asthmatic patients, coughing was reduced by 47% and 80% during the day and night, respectively, 12 months after surgery (P < 0.01). Concomitant hoarseness and expectoration were also significantly reduced (P<0.05). No effect on lung function was seen. In patients with asthma, small, non-significant reductions in asthma symptom scores and consumption of rescue medication were seen. Twenty-two patients were completely free from their GORD symptoms after surgery. In conclusion, anti-reflux surgery in patients with GORD had a more favourable effect on concomitant cough than concomitant asthma. (+info)
Capsaicin cough sensitivity is decreased in smokers.
Although capsaicin provocation has been used to evaluate treatment against cough, which is one of the most common respiratory symptoms, there are still methodological considerations that are not fully known. Capsaicin stimulates the unmyelinated slow C-fibres of the sensory nervous system, which leads to coughing. Smoking often leads to respiratory symptoms with cough and phlegm. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking on capsaicin provocation. Subjectively healthy smokers and non-smokers were challenged with capsaicin in increasing doses. The coughs were counted and irritation of the lower airways was graded on a symptom score. Smokers reacted to provocation with significantly fewer coughs, but there was no difference regarding other symptoms. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that nicotine inhibits or blocks C-fibres of the sensory nervous system of the lower respiratory tract. Clinically, this may serve to explain increasing airway symptoms that are often seen after cessation of smoking. (+info)
Patient weighting of importance of asthma symptoms.
BACKGROUND: Quality of life measures are increasingly important in evaluating outcomes in asthma. If some asthma symptoms are more troublesome to patients than others, this may affect their contribution to outcome measures. This study was designed to assess the relative importance of common symptoms in adults with asthma. METHODS: A postal survey using conjoint analysis was performed in 272 adults attending hospital outpatient clinics with moderately severe asthma. Patients were asked to chose between "symptom scenarios" offering different combinations of levels of five common asthma symptoms over one week. Two versions of the questionnaire were used with identical scenarios presenting symptoms in different orders. Different patients answered the two versions. Regression analysis was used to calculate symptom weights for daytime cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness, and sleep disturbance. RESULTS: Symptom order, percentage predicted peak expiratory flow (PEF), and symptoms in the week before the survey did not influence the choice of scenario. In both questionnaires patients were more likely to choose scenarios with low levels of cough and breathlessness than low sleep disturbance, wheeze or chest tightness. Regression weights for cough (-0.52) and breathlessness (-0.49) were twice those of wheeze (-0.25), chest tightness (-0.27), and sleep disturbance (-0.25). For 12% of patients cough dominated patient preferences, regardless of all other symptoms. Age was inversely related to weight given by patients to breathlessness. CONCLUSIONS: The prominence of cough among other asthma symptoms was unexpected. Daytime cough and breathlessness had greater impact for patients than wheeze or sleep disturbance. Age influenced symptom burden, with younger patients giving greater weight to breathlessness than older patients. Conjoint analysis appears to be a useful method for establishing the relative importance of common symptoms. (+info)