(1/309) Pediatric discharge against medical advice in Bouake Cote d'Ivoire, 1980-1992.
Discharge information was obtained from pediatric ward logbooks of the Centre Hospitalier Regional de Bouake from 1982 to 1992. While number of children admitted per month and discharge diagnosis remained relatively stable throughout the period, the proportion of children who left the hospital against medical advice increased by nearly 5 times during the 11-year period to over 12% of all pediatric admissions. The proportion of discharges against medical advice decreased to 10% of all pediatric admissions after institution of a programme to provide essential drugs at cost to patients (previously only available from private pharmacies). Most children who were taken from the hospital left within the first two days of hospitalization. The admission diagnoses of these children suggest that most had serious, life-threatening illness and that they left the hospital prior to having received adequate treatment. The increase in pediatric ward discharge against medical advice occurred simultaneously with serious budgetary shortfalls in the hospital resulting in inadequacy of medicines and basic equipment. Hospital staff suspected that most of the discharges against medical advice were caused by families being unable to afford the purchase of medicines and supplies necessary for inpatient treatment. It is suggested that widespread policies of decreasing funding for basic curative services in public hospitals may be associated with a substantial increase in preventable child mortality. (+info
(2/309) Population biology of human onchocerciasis.
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is the filarial infection caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted among people through the bites of the Simulium vector. Some 86 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring the nematode, with 18 million people infected and 600,000 visually impaired, half of them partially or totally blind. 99% of cases occur in tropical Africa; scattered foci exist in Latin America. Until recently control programmes, in operation since 1975, have consisted of antivectorial measures. With the introduction of ivermectin in 1988, safe and effective chemotherapy is now available. With the original Onchocerciasis Control Programme of West Africa coming to an end, both the new African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas, rely heavily on ivermectin self-sustained mass delivery. In consequence, the need for understanding the processes regulating parasite abundance in human and simuliid populations is of utmost importance. We present a simple mathematical framework built around recent analyses of exposure- and density-dependent processes operating, respectively, within the human and vector hosts. An expression for the basic reproductive ratio, R0, is derived and related to the minimum vector density required for parasite persistence in localities of West Africa in general and northern Cameroon in particular. Model outputs suggest that constraints acting against parasite establishment in both humans and vectors are necessary to reproduce field observations, but those in humans may not fully protect against reinfection. Analyses of host age-profiles of infection prevalence, intensity, and aggregation for increasing levels of endemicity and intensity of transmission in the Vina valley of northern Cameroon are in agreement with these results and discussed in light of novel work on onchocerciasis immunology. (+info
(3/309) Sonomorphologic evaluation of goiter in an iodine deficiency area in the Ivory Coast.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the extent of thyroid abnormalities in a remote iodine-deficient area of the Ivory Coast. METHODS: Ultrasonography was used in detecting the presence of goiter. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of goiter were 64.7% among females and 53.3% among males. In children aged 6 to 15 years (n = 314), the prevalence of goiter was 62% regardless of sex. Thyroid volume increased steadily with age, with significantly larger goiters in women 25 years and older. Frequency of cysts and calcifications did not correlate with sex. CONCLUSIONS: Especially in developing countries, prophylaxis of iodine deficiency disorders must be improved in iodine-deficient areas to prevent substantial morbidity, which is more severe in women and elderly persons. (+info
(4/309) Association of human papillomavirus with HIV and CD4 cell count in women with high or low numbers of sex partners.
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether HIV serostatus (HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual (HIV-D) reactivity) and CD4 cell count affect human papillomavirus (HPV) in two groups of women from Cote d'Ivoire. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of two groups of women. One group had low numbers of lifetime sex partners (maternal women, n = 258) and were enrolled based on HIV serostatus. The other group had high numbers of sex partners (female sex workers, n = 278) and all consenting self identified sex workers were admitted to this study. We collected epidemiological and clinical data, and cervicovaginal lavage for HPV testing. RESULTS: The groups had different distributions of HIV seroreactivity, but the rates of HPV DNA detection were similar. Most of the HPV DNAs detected in both groups were high risk types. A strong association of high risk HPV DNA and HIV-1 seropositivity was found in both maternal women (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.5 (95% CI 3.2-17.4)) and in sex workers (OR 5.0 (2.1-12.0)). The maternal group also showed an association of high risk HPV DNA detection with HIV-2 (OR 3.7 (1.6-8.5)) and HIV-D (OR 12.7 (4.3-37.5)) that was not observed in the sex workers. In addition, the association of high risk HPV DNA with HIV-1 in the maternal group was independent of low CD4 cell count, while in the sex workers the association depended on CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l. CONCLUSIONS: We found that an association between HPV and HIV varied depending on the sexual behaviour and CD4 cell count of the population examined. (+info
(5/309) HIV and human papillomavirus as independent risk factors for cervical neoplasia in women with high or low numbers of sex partners.
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether HIV types 1 and 2 and CD4 cell count affect cervical neoplasia independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with high or low numbers of sexual partners residing in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. METHODS: The study population and methods are described in the companion paper. Additional methods include a Papanicolaou smear for cytological diagnosis and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In maternal women, both HIV-1 and high risk HPV were significant independent risk factors for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 11.0 (95% CI 1.1-112) and 5.4 (1.5-18.8), respectively). Only high levels of HPV DNA in the lavage were associated with SIL (OR 13.2 (3.6-47.8)) in the maternal group. In female sex workers, high risk HPV was significantly associated with SIL (OR 23.7 (4.4-126)); HIV seropositivity was not. Any positive level (high or low amounts) of HPV DNA was significantly associated with SIL in sex workers (ORs 15.9 (3.3-76) and 12.7 (3.6-44), respectively). There was no association of SIL with CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l in HIV seropositive women from either group. CONCLUSION: HPV or HIV-1 infection independently affect cervical neoplasia in women with low numbers of sex partners. (+info
(6/309) Persistence of goiter despite oral iodine supplementation in goitrous children with iron deficiency anemia in Cote d'Ivoire.
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, many children are at high risk of goiter and iron deficiency anemia. Because iron deficiency can have adverse effects on thyroid metabolism, iron deficiency may influence the response to supplemental iodine in areas of endemic goiter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether goitrous children with iron deficiency anemia would respond to oral iodine supplementation. DESIGN: A trial of oral iodine supplementation was carried out in an area of endemic goiter in western Cote d'Ivoire in goitrous children (n = 109) aged 6-12 y. Group 1 (n = 53) consisted of goitrous children who were not anemic. Group 2 (n = 56) consisted of goitrous children who had iron deficiency anemia. At baseline, thyroid gland volume and urinary iodine, thyrotropin, and thyroxine were measured by using ultrasound. Each child received 200 mg I orally and was observed for 30 wk, during which urinary iodine, thyrotropin, thyroxine, hemoglobin, and thyroid gland volume were measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of goiter at 30 wk was 12% in group 1 and 64% in group 2. The mean percentage change from baseline in thyroid volume 30 wk after administration of oral iodine was -45.1% in group 1 and -21.8% in group 2 (P < 0.001). Among the anemic children, there was a strong correlation between the percentage decrease in thyroid volume and hemoglobin concentration (r(2) = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic response to oral iodine was impaired in goitrous children with iron deficiency anemia, suggesting that the presence of iron deficiency anemia in children limits the effectiveness of iodine intervention programs. (+info
(7/309) Iron supplementation in goitrous, iron-deficient children improves their response to oral iodized oil.
OBJECTIVE: In developing countries, many children are at high risk for both goiter and iron-deficiency anemia. Because iron deficiency may impair thyroid metabolism, the aim of this study was to determine if iron supplementation improves the response to oral iodine in goitrous, iron-deficient anemic children. DESIGN: A trial of oral iodized oil followed by oral iron supplementation in an area of endemic goiter in the western Ivory Coast. METHODS: Goitrous, iodine-deficient children (aged 6-12 years; n=109) were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of goitrous children who were not anemic; Group 2 consisted of goitrous children who were iron-deficient anemic. Both groups were given 200mg oral iodine as iodized oil. Thyroid gland volume using ultrasound, urinary iodine concentration (UI), serum thyroxine (T(4)) and whole blood TSH were measured at baseline, and at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 weeks post intervention. Beginning at 30 weeks, the anemic group was given 60mg oral iron as ferrous sulfate four times/week for 12 weeks. At 50 and 65 weeks after oral iodine (8 and 23 weeks after completing iron supplementation), UI, TSH, T(4) and thyroid volume were remeasured. RESULTS: The prevalence of goiter at 30 weeks after oral iodine in Groups 1 and 2 was 12% and 64% respectively. Mean percent change in thyroid volume compared with baseline at 30 weeks in Groups 1 and 2 was -45.1% and -21.8% respectively (P<0.001 between groups). After iron supplementation in Group 2, there was a further decrease in mean thyroid volume from baseline in the anemic children (-34.8% and -38.4% at 50 and 65 weeks) and goiter prevalence fell to 31% and 20% at 50 and 65 weeks. CONCLUSION: Iron supplementation may improve the efficacy of oral iodized oil in goitrous children with iron-deficiency anemia. (+info
(8/309) Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated. (+info