The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland.
Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting. (+info)
The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants.
BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment. (+info)
Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada.
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. METHODS: Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. RESULTS: There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations. (+info)
Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers. (+info)
The cost of obesity in Canada.
BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care. (+info)
Economic burden of blindness in India.
Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion), and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion). Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion). Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India. (+info)
The economic value of informal caregiving.
This study explores the current market value of the care provided by unpaid family members and friends to ill and disabled adults. Using large, national data sets we estimate that the national economic value of informal caregiving was $196 billion in 1997. This figure dwarfs national spending for formal home health care ($32 billion) and nursing home care ($83 billion). Estimates for five states also are presented. This study broadens the issue of informal caregiving from the micro level, where individual caregivers attempt to cope with the stresses and responsibilities of caregiving, to the macro level of the health care system, which must find more effective ways to support family caregivers. (+info)
Willingness to pay: a feasible method for assessing treatment benefits in epilepsy?
Contingent valuation using willingness to pay (WTP) is one of the methods available for assessing the value of a new technology or treatment for a disease in monetary terms. Experience with this method is lacking in epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the acceptability of the WTP method in epilepsy, the level of the responses, and to investigate its validity by comparison with other non-monetary preference measures. Among 397 patients with epilepsy responding to a comprehensive questionnaire, 82 were randomly selected for an interview. They were asked about their WTP for an imaginary new technology which could permanently cure their epilepsy. Fifty-nine patients participated and 57 completed the interview (32 women; mean age 44 years), the majority with well-controlled epilepsy. The patients indicated a median WTP of Norwegian Kroner (NOK) 150,000 (USD 20,000; GBP 11,800), interquartile range NOK 50,000-350,000 (USD 6, 667-46, 667; GBP 3,937-27,559) for this cure. Non-response was low, indicating high acceptability of this method. There was little association between WTP and other preference measures; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.09 and -0.12 with time trade-off and standard gamble respectively, questioning the validity of this method. (+info)