Sex differences in susceptibility of ICR mice to oral infection with Corynebacterium kutscheri.
Sex difference in susceptibility to oral infection with Corynebacterium (C.) kutscheri was experimentally studied in ICR mice. Immature (4-week-old) and adult (14-week-old) mice were inoculated with two infecting doses of C. kutscheri, and necropsied for bacteriological and serological survey 4 weeks after the bacterial infection. No macroscopic lesions at necropsy were demonstrated, except for one adult male given 10(9) bacteria. In immature mice, C. Kutscheri isolated from the oral cavity and cecum with FNC agar, were recovered in only 40.0% of female mice but in 90.0% of male mice given 10(6) bacteria (p < 0.05), and in only 55.6% of female mice but in 80.0% male mice given 10(8) bacteria. In adult mice given 10(9) bacteria, the organism were recovered in only 45.5% of female mice but in 90.9% of male mice (p < 0.05), furthermore, the mean number of organisms in the cecum of male mice harboring the organism was significantly higher than that in females (p < 0.01). Castration caused an increase in host resistance in adult male mice. These results indicated that ICR male mice were more susceptible than females, in terms of bacterial colonization in the cecum and the oral cavity, to oral infection with C. kutscheri. (+info)
Corynebacterium sundsvallense sp. nov., from human clinical specimens.
Three strains of a previously undescribed catalase-positive non-lipophilic coryneform bacterium isolated from human clinical specimens were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Morphologically the unknown bacterium consisted of pleomorphic rods, some of which displayed bulges/knobs at their ends. All three strains were similar in that they produced acid from fructose, glucose, maltose and sucrose and were urease-positive. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and short-chain mycolic acids consistent with the genus Corynebacterium sensu stricto. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the three strains are genealogically highly related and constitute a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium, displaying > 3% sequence divergence with recognized species. The unknown bacterium was distinguished from currently validly published Corynebacterium species by phenotypic tests, including electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from clinical specimens be classified as Corynebacterium sundsvallense sp. nov. The type strain is CCUG 36622T. (+info)
Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe.
We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland. (+info)
Bacterial conjunctivitis in Muc1 null mice.
PURPOSE: In contrast to wild-type mice, genetically engineered Mucin1 (Muc1) null animals display a marked propensity for development of blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Molecular approaches confirmed the presence of Muc1 mRNA and protein in the conjunctival tissue of wild-type mice and identified the bacterial species in Muc1 null symptomatic mice. METHODS: Muc1 null animals housed in a conventional facility were examined for visually apparent inflammation of the eye and surrounding tissue. Blood taken from overtly affected animals was assayed for antibodies to common murine viral agents. Swabs of infected eyes and whole eye preparations were used to detect and speciate bacterial pathogens. Frozen sections of whole eye, lid margin, and Harderian gland were immunostained with antibodies to Muc1 and cytokeratin 14, both epithelial cell markers. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on RNA isolated from conjunctiva and Harderian gland of wild-type mice to compare relative levels of transcript. RESULTS: Student's unpaired t-test performed on the eye inflammation frequency of Muc1 null mice confirmed a statistical significance (P < 0.01) when compared to wild-type background animals housed in the same room. Analysis of blood samples from affected Muc1 null animals detected no common murine viral pathogens. Bacterial analysis of conjunctival swabs and whole eye preparations demonstrated the presence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus type alpha, and Corynebacterium group G2. Muc1 antibody staining of wild-type sections revealed the presence of Muc1 on conjunctival goblet and non-goblet cells and on the epithelium of the Harderian gland. Serial sections stained with cytokeratin 14 antibody confirmed the epithelial nature of cells expressing the Muc1 protein. RNA from conjunctiva and Harderian gland subjected to RT-PCR and northern blot analysis showed an abundance of Muc1 transcript in these tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Muc1 mRNA and protein are present in murine conjunctival and Harderian gland epithelia. Animals lacking Muc1 mRNA and protein are predisposed to developing eye inflammation when compared to wild-type animals with an intact Muc1 gene. Muc1 appears to play a critical protective role at the ocular surface, presumably by acting as a barrier to infection by certain bacterial strains. (+info)
Randomized, double-blind trial of an antibiotic-lock technique for prevention of gram-positive central venous catheter-related infection in neutropenic patients with cancer.
The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of an antibiotic-lock technique in preventing endoluminal catheter-related infection with gram-positive bacteria in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients with nontunneled, multilumen central venous catheters were assigned in a randomized, double-blinded manner to receive either 10 U of heparin per ml (57 patients) or 10 U of heparin per ml and 25 microg of vancomycin per ml (60 patients), which were instilled in the catheter lumen and which were allowed to dwell in the catheter lumen for 1 h every 2 days. Insertion-site and hub swabs were taken twice weekly. The primary and secondary end points of the trial were significant colonization of the catheter hub and catheter-related bacteremia, respectively. Significant colonization of the catheter hub occurred in nine (15.8%) patients receiving heparin (seven patients were colonized with Staphylococcus epidermidis, one patient was colonized with Staphylococcus capitis, and one patient was colonized with Corynebacterium sp.), whereas the catheter hubs of none of the patients receiving heparin and vancomycin were colonized (P = 0.001). Catheter-related bacteremia developed in four (7%) patients receiving heparin (three patients had S. epidermidis bacteremia and one patient had S. capitis bacteremia), whereas none of the patients in the heparin and vancomycin group had catheter-related bacteremia (P = 0.05). The times to catheter hub colonization and to catheter-related bacteremia by the Kaplan-Meier method were longer in patients receiving heparin and vancomycin than in patients receiving heparin alone (P = 0.004 and P = 0.06, respectively). Our study shows that a solution containing heparin and vancomycin administered by using an antibiotic-lock technique effectively prevents catheter hub colonization with gram-positive bacteria and subsequent bacteremia during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with hematologic malignancy. (+info)
Targeting improves the efficacy of a DNA vaccine against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in sheep.
A large-scale DNA vaccination trial was performed with sheep to investigate whether an antigen targeted by CTLA-4 enhanced and accelerated the humoral immune response. Vaccination with genetically detoxified phospholipase D (DeltaPLD) has been shown to be effective, at least partially, against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the causal agent of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep. CTLA-4 binds to B7 on antigen-presenting cells and thus was used to direct the fusion antigens to sites of immune induction. Here we demonstrated that targeting DeltaPLD as a CTLA-4 fusion protein significantly enhanced the speed, magnitude, and longevity of the antibody response compared to that obtained with DNA encoding DeltaPLD. While all groups of sheep vaccinated with DNA encoding DeltaPLD were afforded better protection against an experimental challenge with C. pseudotuberculosis than those immunized with an irrelevant plasmid or those left unimmunized, the best protection was provided by the targeted DNA vaccine. We propose that targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells offers a generic strategy for enhancing the efficacy of DNA vaccines. (+info)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon are required for the development of protective immunity to secondary Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in mice.
The production and role of endogenous cytokines during the course of secondary Corynebacterium (C.) pseudotuberculosis infection were investigated in mice. When immunized mice were challenged on day 28 after primary infection, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were found to appear at 3 hr and to reach the maximum at 24 hr after challenge. Spleen cells of mice primarily infected from 2 to 8 weeks before produced a significant amount of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma when stimulated with formalin-killed bacteria. However, they could not produce detectable amounts of IL-4. The administration of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (MAb) and IFN-gamma MAb increased bacterial proliferation in the organs of immune mice and exacerbated the secondary infection. Injection of anti-CD4 MAb alone or anti-CD4 plus anti-CD8 MAbs resulted in significantly increased mortality and a marked suppression of bacterial elimination as well as cytokine production of secondarily infected mice, while the treatment with anti-CD8 MAb alone showed no effect on either the resistance or cytokine production of mice. These results suggest that CD4, probably Th1 T cells, play an important role for establishment of protective immunity against secondary C. pseudotuberculosis infection by secreting TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. (+info)
CT and MRI findings in primitive pituitary abscess: a case report and review of literature.
Pituitary abscess is not rare. Clinical and radiological features in a primitive pituitary abscess are reported. Transphenoidal surgery revealed an abscess. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess remains difficult. Sellar round cystic mass isointense to grey matter on T1, high intensity signal on T2, with a peripheral rim enhancement following gadolinium injection associated with thickened stalk and diabetes insipidus may be suggestive of pituitary abscess. (+info)