Functional glucocorticoid receptor gene variants do not underlie the high variability of 17-hydroxyprogesterone screening values in healthy newborns. (33/79)


11-deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey. (34/79)


11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. (35/79)


Progestin signaling through mPRalpha in Atlantic croaker granulosa/theca cell cocultures and its involvement in progestin inhibition of apoptosis. (36/79)


Enzymatic activities of P-450(11 beta)s expressed by two cDNAs in COS-7 cells. (37/79)

Expression plasmids were constructed using two cDNA clones of P-450(11 beta), pcP-450-(11 beta)-2, and pcP-450(11 beta)-3 (Morohashi et al. (1987) J. Biochem. 102, 559-568 and Kirita et al. (1988) J. Biochem. 104, 683-686), and introduced into COS-7 cells by electroporation. The expression of P-450(11 beta) proteins and their localization in the mitochondria were demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. The enzymatic activities of the expressed P-450(11 beta)s were determined using deoxycorticosterone (DOC), deoxycortisol, and corticosterone as substrates. Though the activities of the two P-450(11 beta)s for 11-, 18-, and 19-hydroxylation of DOC were almost equal, the production of 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone from corticosterone by P-450(11 beta)-3 was greater than that by P-450(11 beta)-2.  (+info)

Clinicopathological features, biochemical and molecular markers in 5 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. (38/79)

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare malignant tumor with poor prognosis. To gain insight into the pathogenic significance of ACC, we studied clinicopathological features and gene expression profile in ACC. We analyzed five ACC cases (two men and three women) with the median age of 45-year-old who underwent adrenalectomy at our institute. Endocrine studies revealed that two cases had subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) and one with concomitant estrogen-secreting tumor, while the rest of three cases had non-functioning tumors. Analysis of urinary steroids profile by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed increased metabolites of corticosteroid precursors, such as 17-OH pregnenolone, 17-OH progesterone, dehydroepiandorosterone (DHEA), and 11-deoxycortisol in all five cases. The pathological diagnosis of ACC was based on Weiss's criteria with its score >/= 3. The mean size of the resected tumors was 87 mm and Ki67/MIB1 labeling index, a proliferative marker, was 3-27%. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a disorganized expression of several steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17alpha-hydroxylase, and DHEA-sulfotransferase. Among several genes determined by RT-PCR, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA was consistently and abundantly expressed in all 5 tumor tissues. Postoperatively, two cases with SCS developed local recurrence and liver metastasis. The present study suggests that the disorganized expression of steroidogenic enzymes and the overexpression of IGF-II by the tumor are hallmarks of ACC, which could be used as biochemical and molecular markers for ACC.  (+info)

ACTH stimulation tests and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women with hirsutism. (39/79)

BACKGROUND: Hirsutism in women is a clinical manifestation of excessive production of androgens. The source of the excess androgen may be either the ovaries or the adrenal glands, and distinguishing between these sources may be difficult. METHODS: To determine whether measurements of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate and ACTH stimulation tests, both widely used in the evaluation of hirsutism in women, provide useful information, we performed both tests in 22 normal women and 31 female patients with hirsutism. The hormones measured in plasma during the ACTH stimulation tests were progesterone, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, androstenedione, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol. RESULTS: The women with hirsutism were divided into four groups based on their individual responses to ACTH stimulation: patients with a possible 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency, those with a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency, those with a possible 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency, and those with no apparent defect in steroidogenesis. The results in 19 patients (61 percent) suggested subtle defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. There was no significant correlation between the basal plasma DHEA sulfate levels and the hormonal response to ACTH, nor were the basal levels of hormones predictive of the levels after ACTH stimulation. Eleven patients had significantly elevated basal levels of plasma DHEA sulfate; only 5 of these 11 had responses to ACTH suggestive of compromised steroidogenesis. Thirteen patients who had responses suggestive of defective steroidogenesis had DHEA sulfate levels within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of women with hirsutism have mild defects in adrenal steroidogenesis, revealed by an ACTH stimulation test, that are indicative of late-onset (nonclassic) congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Measurements of basal steroid levels are not helpful in differentiating among the causes of increased androgen production in such patients and may be misleading.  (+info)

Serum cortisol and 11 deoxycortisol by liquid chromatography: clinical studies and comparison with radioimmunoassay. (40/79)

We describe a liquid-chromatographic procedure for separating and measuring cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol in serum. We quantitated these steroids in patients who were undergoing various tests of pituitary and (or) adrenal function and compared the results with those obtained by two radioimmunoassays done in two different laboratories. Results of 48 tests done in 37 functionally normal humans are presented. Cortisol values for sera collected in the morning as determined by liquid chromatography were (mean +/- SD) 134 +/- 54 micrograms/L. Serum cortisol concentrations increased from 136 +/- 65 to 321 +/- 80 micrograms/L 60 min after injecting synthetic corticotropin and increased from 107 +/- 46 to 242 +/- 31 micrograms/L after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Serum cortisol decreased from 142 +/- 49 to 26 +/- 20 micrograms/L after oral administration of metyrapone, while 11-deoxycortisol increased from less than 10 to 210 +/- 53 micrograms/L. Serum cortisol measured less than 10 micrograms/L the morning after oral ingestion of dexamethasone. Results of the dynamic tests of adrenal function correlated well with previously reported studies. However, the cortisol values obtained by our technique were generally lower than those obtained by radioimmunoassay, possibly owing to lack of specificity of the latter methods used here for comparison. In contrast, values for 11-deoxycortisol were the same by both methods. The present studies confirm the usefulness of liquid chromatography for measuring these two steroids in serum during tests of pituitary and adrenal function. Future refinements of the technique should continue to increase its clinical applications.  (+info)