Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish. (9/27)

BACKGROUND: TGF-beta is a multifunctional growth factor involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. Unlike mammals, the function of TGF-beta in the reproduction of lower vertebrates, such as fish, is not clear. Recently, we showed that TGF-beta1 inhibits gonadotropin- and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP)-induced maturation in zebrafish. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying this action. METHOD: To determine if the effect of TGF-beta1 on oocyte maturation involves transcription and/or translation, ovarian follicles were pre-treated with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, and cyclohexamide, an inhibitor of translation, and incubated with hCG or DHP, either alone or in combination with TGF-beta1 and oocyte maturation scored. To determine the effect of TGF-beta1 on mRNA levels of several key effectors of oocyte maturation, three sets of experiments were performed. First, follicles were treated with control medium or TGF-beta1 for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Second, follicles were treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta1 (0 to 10 ng/ml) for 18 h. Third, follicles were incubated with hCG in the absence or presence of TGF-beta1 for 18 h. At the end of each experiment, total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. PCR using primers specific for 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) which is involved in DHP production, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control), were performed. RESULTS: Treatment with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, reduced the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on DHP-induced oocyte maturation, indicating that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta1 is in part due to regulation of gene transcription. Treatment with TGF-beta1 caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in mRNA levels of 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta in follicles. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 had no effect on mPR-alpha mRNA expression and increased FSHR mRNA levels. Furthermore, hCG upregulated 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta mRNA levels, but this stimulatory effect was blocked by TGF-beta1. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 acts at multiple sites, including LHR, 20beta-HSD and mPR-beta, to inhibit zebrafish oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Uncoupled redox systems in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Pyridine nucleotides stay reduced in an oxidative environment. (10/27)

The redox state of the intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool was investigated in rat liver microsomal vesicles. The vesicles showed cortisone reductase activity in the absence of added reductants, which was dependent on the integrity of the membrane. The intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool could be oxidized by the addition of cortisone or metyrapone but not of glutathione. On the other hand, intraluminal pyridine nucleotides were slightly reduced by cortisol or glucose 6-phosphate, although glutathione was completely ineffective. Redox state of microsomal protein thiols/disulfides was not altered either by manipulations affecting the redox state of pyridine nucleotides or by the addition of NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H. The uncoupling of the thiol/disulfide and NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H redox couples was not because of their subcompartmentation, because enzymes responsible for the intraluminal oxidoreduction of pyridine nucleotides were distributed equally in smooth and rough microsomal subfractions. Instead, the phenomenon can be explained by the negligible representation of glutathione reductase in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The results demonstrated the separate existence of two redox systems in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, which explains the contemporary functioning of oxidative folding and of powerful reductive reactions.  (+info)

The altered specificity of cortisone reductase with certain retroandrostan-3-one substrates. (11/27)

The retro steroids 17beta-hydroxy-5beta,9beta,10alpha-androstan-3-one and 5beta,9beta,10alpha-androstane-3,17-dione were good substrates for cortisone reductase in the presence of NADH, and the products corresponded to the respective 3beta-hydroxy compounds, in which the 3beta-hydroxyl group is axial and the absolute configuration is 3S. The analogous natural steroids 17beta-hydroxy-5beta,9alpha,10beta-androstan-3-one and 5beta,9alpha,10beta-androstane-3,17-dione were very poor substrates, and gave the corresponding 3alpha(equatorial,3R)-hydroxy compounds, and, in the latter case, also an appreciable amount of 3beta(axial, 3S)-hydroxy-5beta,9alpha,10beta-androstan-17-one. The natural steroids 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha,9alpha,10beta-androstan-3-one and 5alpha,9alpha,10beta-androstane-3,17-dione were better substrates than the retro steroid 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha,9beta,10alpha-androstan-3-one, but were not such good substrates as the retro steroids 17beta-hydroxy-5beta,9beta,10alpha-androstan-3-one and 5beta,9beta,10alpha-androstane-3,17-dione. Unlike these retro steroid 5beta,9beta,10alpha-androstan-3-ones, the natural steroids 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha,9alpha,10beta-androstan-3-one and 5alpha,9alpha,10beta-androstane-3,17-dione gave the corresponding 3alpha(axial,3R)-hydroxy compounds. The retro steroid 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha,9beta,10alpha-androstan-3-one was not a good substrate, and the product of reaction corresponded to the 3alpha(axial,3R)-hydroxy compound. The nature of substrate recognition by this enzyme is discussed in the light of these structure-activity relationships.  (+info)

20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and CYP19A1 are differentially expressed during maturation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). (12/27)

In order to better quantify the molecular mechanisms regulating final oocyte maturation and spawning, complete coding sequences with partially or fully untranslated regions for the steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 aromatase and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, were cloned from ovaries of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed high homologies with the corresponding sequences of other fish species, and conserved features important for functionality were identified in both predicted proteins. The sequences of the corresponding genomic loci were also determined, allowing the design of mRNA-specific quantitative PCR assays. As a reference gene for the real-time RT-PCR assays, eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha was chosen, and the mRNA as well as the genomic sequence was determined. In addition, a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the 18S rRNA was adapted to be used in cod. Analysis of immature and maturing female cod from July to January respectively showed that the enzyme genes showed the expected quantitative changes associated with physiological regulation. However, mRNA for eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, and to a lesser extent even 18S rRNA, showed variable expression in these samples as well. To find accurate standards for real-time PCR in such a dynamic organ as the cod ovary is not an easy task, and several possible solutions are discussed.  (+info)

Constant expression of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (13/27)


Steroid biomarkers and genetic studies reveal inactivating mutations in hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in patients with cortisone reductase deficiency. (14/27)


Three-dimensional structure of holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a member of a short-chain dehydrogenase family. (15/27)

The x-ray structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase, the bacterial holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC, is described at 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme is active as a tetramer and crystallizes with four identical subunits in the asymmetric unit. It has the alpha/beta fold characteristic of the dinucleotide binding region. The fold of the rest of the subunit, the quaternary structure, and the nature of the cofactor-enzyme interactions are, however, significantly different from those observed in the long-chain dehydrogenases. The architecture of the postulated active site is consistent with the observed stereospecificity of the enzyme and the fact that the tetramer is the active form. There is only one cofactor and one substrate-binding site per subunit; the specificity for both 3 alpha- and 20 beta-ends of the steroid results from the binding of the steroid in two orientations near the same cofactor at the same catalytic site.  (+info)

Prokaryotic 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is an enzyme of the 'short-chain, non-metalloenzyme' alcohol dehydrogenase type. (16/27)

The primary structure of 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Streptomyces hydrogenans was determined after FPLC purification of a commercial preparation. Peptides obtained from different proteolytic cleavages were purified by reverse phase HPLC. The 255-residue structure deduced was found to be distantly homologous to those of Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and several other dehydrogenases, establishing that prokaryotic 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a member of the 'short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family'. With the enzymes characterized, the identity is greatest (31-34%) towards 4 other prokaryotic dehydrogenases, but the family also includes mammalian steroid and prostaglandin dehydrogenases. These enzymes are low in Cys and have a strictly conserved Tyr residue that appears to be important.  (+info)