Genome characterization of lipid-containing marine bacteriophage PM2 by transposon insertion mutagenesis. (9/17)

Bacteriophage PM2 presently is the only member of the Corticoviridae family. The virion consists of a protein-rich lipid vesicle, which is surrounded by an icosahedral protein capsid. The lipid vesicle encloses a supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA genome of 10,079 bp. PM2 belongs to the marine phage community and is known to infect two gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas species. In this study, we present a characterization of the PM2 genome made using the in vitro transposon insertion mutagenesis approach. Analysis of 101 insertion mutants yielded information on the essential and dispensable regions of the PM2 genome and led to the identification of several new genes. A number of lysis-deficient mutants as well as mutants displaying delayed- and/or incomplete-lysis phenotypes were identified. This enabled us to identify novel lysis-associated genes with no resemblance to those previously described from other bacteriophage systems. Nonessential genome regions are discussed in the context of PM2 genome evolution.  (+info)

Putative prophages related to lytic tailless marine dsDNA phage PM2 are widespread in the genomes of aquatic bacteria. (10/17)

BACKGROUND: The origin and evolution of viruses is currently a heavily discussed issue. One element in this discussion is the innate viral "self" concept, which suggests that viral structures and functions can be divided into two categories. The first category consists of genetic determinants that are inherited from a viral ancestor and encode the viral "self". The second group consists of another set of structures and functions, the "nonself", which is interchangeable between different viruses and can be obtained via lateral gene transfer. Comparing the structures and sequences of the "self" elements, we have proposed that viruses can be grouped into lineages regardless of which domain of life (bacteria, archaea, eukarya) they infect. It has also been suggested that viruses are ancient and possibly predate modern cells. RESULTS: Here we identified thirteen putative prophages (viral genomes integrated into bacterial chromosome) closely related to the virulent icosahedral tailless lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. Using the comparative genomics approach, we present evidence to support the viral "self" hypothesis and divide genes of the bacteriophage PM2 and related prophages into "self" and "nonself" categories. CONCLUSION: We show here that the previously proposed most conserved viral "self" determinants, the major coat protein and the packaging ATPase, were the only proteins that could be recognized in all detected corticoviral elements. We also argue here that the genes needed for viral genome replication, as well as for host cell lysis, belong to the "nonself" category of genes.Furthermore, we suggest that abundance of PM2-like viruses in the aquatic environment as well as their importance in the ecology of aquatic microorganisms might have been underestimated.  (+info)

Genetics for Pseudoalteromonas provides tools to manipulate marine bacterial virus PM2. (11/17)

The genetic manipulation of marine double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage PM2 (Corticoviridae) has been limited so far. The isolation of an autonomously replicating DNA element of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 and construction of a shuttle vector replicating in both Escherichia coli and Pseudoalteromonas enabled us to design a set of conjugative shuttle plasmids encoding tRNA suppressors for amber mutations. Using a host strain carrying a suppressor plasmid allows the introduction and analysis of nonsense mutations in PM2. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a suppressor-sensitive PM2 sus2 mutant deficient in the structural protein P10. To infect and replicate, PM2 delivers its 10-kbp genome across the cell envelopes of two gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas species. The events leading to the internalization of the circular supercoiled dsDNA are puzzling. In a poorly understood process that follows receptor recognition, the virion capsid disassembles and the internal membrane fuses with the host outer membrane. While beginning to unravel the mechanism of this process, we found that protein P10 plays an essential role in the host cell penetration.  (+info)

Transcription of bacteriophage PM2. (12/17)

Transcription of bacteriophage PM2 after infection of Alteromonas espejiana BAL-31 was examined. A wave of PM2 late transcription was observed 22 to 44 min after infection. This transcription was chloramphenicol- and rifampicin-sensitive. Regions of PM2 DNA transcribed with high efficiency were determined by DNA--RNA hybridization and Southern's technique.  (+info)

Insights into virus evolution and membrane biogenesis from the structure of the marine lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (13/17)


Calcium ion-dependent entry of the membrane-containing bacteriophage PM2 into its Pseudoalteromonas host. (14/17)


Insights into the evolution of a complex virus from the crystal structure of vaccinia virus D13. (15/17)


From lows to highs: using low-resolution models to phase X-ray data. (16/17)