Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion.
Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained. (+info)
The durability of parylene coatings on neodymium-iron-boron magnets.
A parylene coating is frequently used to prevent corrosion of neodymium-iron-boron magnets when they are used intra-orally. This in vitro study was designed to test the durability of parylene coating in a simulated oral environment. Single and double parylene-coated magnets were subjected to grinding and crushing forces in an industrial ball mill. The results demonstrate that abrasion and wear was visible around the edges after 1 hour of testing, with a breach of the coating noted under high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conclusion of the study is that parylene coating is unlikely to withstand intra-oral forces. The shape of the magnets, the manufacturing process involved in their production, and the thickness of the parylene coating are important factors to consider with respect to the durability of magnets used in the mouth. (+info)
Isothermal age-hardening behaviour in a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy.
The isothermal age-hardening behaviour of a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy. By ageing of the solution-treated specimen at 400-500 degrees C, two phases of the Au-rich alpha 1 phase with an f.c.c. structure and the alpha 2 phase with an ordered f.c.c. structure based on Pt3In were transformed into three phases of the alpha 1 phase, the alpha 2 phase and the beta phase with an ordered f.c.t. structure based on PtZn. Hardening was attributed to the fine nodular precipitation resulting from the formation of the beta phase in the alpha 1 matrix. Softening was due to the coarsening of the fine nodular precipitates as the result of consumption of the alpha 2 phase. (+info)
Surface characterization of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires.
The structure and morphological condition of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires was evaluated and any possible alterations in the surface composition of the alloy following 1-6 months in vivo were characterized. NiTi wires (GAC, German Orthodontics, ORMCO) of various cross-sections were collected through a retrieval protocol and were subjected to multi-technique characterization. Optical microscopy revealed islands of amorphous precipitants and accumulated microcrystalline particles. Micro MIR-FTIR investigation of the retrieved samples demonstrated the presence of a proteinaceous biofilm, the organic constituents of which were mainly amide, alcohol, and carbonate. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray microanalysis showed that the elemental species precipitated on the material surface were Na, K, Cl, Ca, and P, forming NaCl, KCl, and Ca-P precipitates. Increased intra-oral exposure was consistently associated with the presence of a mature film, while evidence of alloy delamination, pitting, and crevice corrosion, as well as a notable reduction in the alloy grain size was observed. Intra-oral exposure of NiTi wires alters the topography and structure of the alloy surface through surface attack in the form of pitting or crevice corrosion or formation of integuments. Further in vivo research is required to resolve the implications of the described ageing pattern in the corrosion resistance of the alloy, the potential for nickel leaching, as well as bracket-archwire friction variants. (+info)
Unusual indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance treatment.
Two cases are described of indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance therapy. The acquired pigmentation occurred in patients with an identifiable enamel defect prior to treatment. The interaction of factors to cause the staining is discussed and it's prevention in future cases highlighted. Subsequent restoration of the affected teeth is shown. (+info)
Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys.
Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys. (+info)
Corrosion resistance of the Pt-Fe-Nb magnets for dental-casting.
Magnetic attachments have been used in clinical dental practice, but there is some difficulties associated with removable bridges. One possible solution is to make whole bridges of Pt-Fe magnet alloys and its abutment out of magnetic stainless steel by casting. In terms of castability and magnetic properties, the promising composition of the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy is Pt-30.0 mass% Fe-0.6 mass% Nb and Pt-30.0 mass% Fe-0.5 mass% Nb-0.03 mass% Si. In the present study, the corrosion resistance of these alloys was investigated based on the elusion test, electrochemical behavior and surface characterization by EPMA analysis. The released elements from the Pt-Fe-Nb magnets were mainly Fe ions in quantities similar to that of stainless steel for biomedical use, and the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy, the Pt-Fe-Nb-Si magnet alloy and platinum resembled each other in electrochemical behavior. The present findings suggest, that the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy provides excellent corrosion resistance and has important clinical dental applications. (+info)
Corrosion characteristics of ferric and austenitic stainless steels for dental magnetic attachment.
The corrosion behaviors of four ferric stainless steels and two austenitic stainless steels were examined in a simulated physiological environment (0.9% NaCl solution) to obtain basic data for evaluating the appropriate composition of stainless steels for dental magnetic attachments. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and the analysis of released metal ions by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The surface of the stainless steels was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The breakdown potential of ferric stainless steels increased and the total amount of released metal ions decreased linearly with increases in the sum of the Cr and Mo contents. The corrosion rate of the ferric stainless steels increased 2 to 6 times when they were galvanically coupled with noble metal alloys but decreased when coupled with commercially pure Ti. For austenitic stainless steels, the breakdown potential of high N-bearing stainless steel was approximately 500 mV higher than that of SUS316L, which is currently used as a component in dental magnetic attachments. The enriched nitrogen at the alloy/passive film interface may be effective in improving the localized corrosion resistance. (+info)