Immune response to the immunodominant epitope of mouse hepatitis virus is polyclonal, but functionally monospecific in C57Bl/6 mice. (1/657)

Mutations in an immunodominant CD8 CTL epitope (S-510-518) are selected in mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. These mutations abrogate recognition by T cells harvested from the infected CNS in direct ex vivo cytotoxicity assays. Previous reports have suggested that, in general, an oligoclonal, monospecific T cell response contributes to the selection of CTL escape mutants. Herein, we show that, in MHV-JHM-infected mice, the CD8 T cell response after intraperitoneal infection is polyclonal and diverse. This diverse response was shown to include both polyclonal and oligoclonal components. The polyclonal data were shown to fit a logarithmic distribution. With regard to specificity, we used a panel of peptide analogues of epitope S-510-518 and spleen-derived CD8 T cell lines to determine why only a subset of possible mutations was selected in persistently infected mice. At a given position in the epitope, the mutations identified in in vivo isolates were among those that resulted in the greatest loss of recognition. However, not all such mutations were selected, suggesting that additional factors must contribute to selection in vivo. By extrapolation of these results to the persistently infected CNS, they suggest that the selection of CTL escape mutants requires the presence of a monospecific T cell response but also show that this response need not be oligoclonal.  (+info)

Application of nested polymerase chain reaction to detection of mouse hepatitis virus in fecal specimens during a natural outbreak in an immunodeficient mouse colony. (2/657)

The usefulness of RT-PCR for the detection of MHV in tissues and feces of experimentally infected animals has been reported, but it was unclear whether the method was also applicable for the detection of MHV during a natural outbreak. Enterotropic infection is considered to be the most common form of natural infection among various forms of MHV infection. In this paper, RT-nested PCR was performed to detect MHV excreted in the feces during an outbreak in an immunocompromised A/WySnJ mouse colony. The expected bands were amplified after nested PCR from 20 fecal samples out of 37. These results showed that RT-nested PCR could be applicable for the diagnosis for MHV natural infection.  (+info)

Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E. (3/657)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) cause common colds. Previous reports suggest that these infectious agents may be neurotropic in humans, as they are for some mammals. With the long-term aim of providing experimental evidence for the neurotropism of HuCV and the establishment of persistent infections in the nervous system, we have evaluated the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to acute and persistent infection by HuCV-229E. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, and oligodendrocytic MO3.13 cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-229E. The CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell line was not susceptible to infection by this virus. The MO3.13 and H4 cell lines also sustained a persistent viral infection, as monitored by detection of viral antigen and infectious virus progeny. Sequencing of the S1 gene from viral RNA after approximately 130 days of infection showed two point mutations, suggesting amino acid changes during persistent infection of MO3.13 cells but none for H4 cells. Thus, persistent in vitro infection did not generate important changes in the S1 portion of the viral spike protein, which was shown for murine coronaviruses to bear hypervariable domains and to interact with cellular receptor. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-229E in cells of the human nervous system, such as oligodendrocytes and possibly neurons, and the virus's apparent genomic stability.  (+info)

Acute and persistent infection of human neural cell lines by human coronavirus OC43. (4/657)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) are recognized respiratory pathogens. Data accumulated by different laboratories suggest their neurotropic potential. For example, primary cultures of human astrocytes and microglia were shown to be susceptible to an infection by the OC43 strain of HuCV (A. Bonavia, N. Arbour, V. W. Yong, and P. J. Talbot, J. Virol. 71:800-806, 1997). We speculate that the neurotropism of HuCV will lead to persistence within the central nervous system, as was observed for murine coronaviruses. As a first step in the verification of our hypothesis, we have characterized the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny, and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, oligodendrocytic MO3.13, and the CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen and RNA and release of infectious virions were observed during persistent HuCV-OC43 infections ( approximately 130 days of culture) of U-87 MG, U-373 MG, MO3.13, and H4 cell lines. Nucleotide sequences of RNA encoding the putatively hypervariable viral S1 gene fragment obtained after 130 days of culture were compared to that of initial virus input. Point mutations leading to amino acid changes were observed in all persistently infected cell lines. Moreover, an in-frame deletion was also observed in persistently infected H4 cells. Some point mutations were observed in some molecular clones but not all, suggesting evolution of the viral population and the emergence of viral quasispecies during persistent infection of H4, U-87 MG, and MO3.13 cell lines. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-OC43 in cells of the human nervous system, accompanied by the production of infectious virions and molecular variation of viral genomic RNA.  (+info)

Selection of CD8+ T cells with highly focused specificity during viral persistence in the central nervous system. (5/657)

The relationships between T cell populations during primary viral infection and persistence are poorly understood. Mice infected with the neurotropic JHMV strain of mouse hepatitis virus mount potent regional CTL responses that effectively reduce infectious virus; nevertheless, viral RNA persists in the central nervous system (CNS). To evaluate whether persistence influences Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, functional TCR diversity was studied in spleen and CNS-derived CTL populations based on differential recognition of variant peptides for the dominant nucleocapsid epitope. Increased specificity of peripheral CTL from persistently infected mice for the index epitope compared with immunized mice suggested T cell selection during persistence. This was confirmed with CD8+ T cell clones derived from the CNS of either acutely (CTLac) or persistently (CTLper) infected mice. Whereas CTLac clones recognized a broad diversity of amino acid substitutions, CTLper clones exhibited exquisite specificity for the wild-type sequence. Highly focused specificity was CD8 independent but correlated with longer complementarity-determining regions 3 characteristic of CTLper clonotypes despite limited TCR alpha/beta-chain heterogeneity. Direct ex vivo analysis of CNS-derived mononuclear cells by IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay confirmed the selection of T cells with narrow Ag specificity during persistence at the population level. These data suggest that broadly reactive CTL during primary infection are capable of controlling potentially emerging mutations. By contrast, the predominance of CD8+ T cells with dramatically focused specificity during persistence at the site of infection and in the periphery supports selective pressure driven by persisting Ag.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (6/657)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Interference of natural mouse hepatitis virus infection with cytokine production and susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi. (7/657)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection can have a pronounced impact on several investigation areas. Reports on natural MHV outbreaks are rare and most studies have been conducted by deliberately infecting mice with MHV laboratory strains that cause moderate to severe disturbances to the immune system. We have investigated the effects of a natural acute outbreak of MHV in our otherwise specific-pathogen-free (SPF) inbred mouse colonies, and of enzootic chronic MHV infection on cytokine production and resistance to the intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. We found that BALB/c and/or C57BL/6 SPF mice that had been injected with T. cruzi blood trypomastigotes from recently MHV-contaminated (MHV+) mice developed significantly higher parasite blood counts, accelerated death, and showed higher IL-10 production by spleen cells than their counterparts whose T. cruzi inoculum was derived from MHV-negative (MHV-) donors. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by MHV+ and MHV- mice was not significantly different. In contrast, T. cruzi infection of chronically MHV-infected mice did not result in major changes in the course of infection when compared with that observed in mice from MHV- colonies, although a trend to higher parasitaemia levels was observed in BALB/c MHV+ mice. Nevertheless, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 T. cruzi-infected MHV+ mice had diminished IFN-gamma production to parasite-antigen stimulation in comparison with similarly infected MHV- mice. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production levels by spleen cells did not differ between chronic MHV+ and MHV- mice, but IFN-gamma neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatment of anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cell cultures showed higher levels of IL-10 synthesis in MHV+ BALB/c mice.  (+info)

Antibody prevents virus reactivation within the central nervous system. (8/657)

The neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) produces an acute CNS infection characterized by encephalomyelitis and demyelination. The immune response cannot completely eliminate virus, resulting in persistence associated with chronic ongoing CNS demyelination. The contribution of humoral immunity to viral clearance and persistent infection was investigated in mice homozygous for disruption of the Ig mu gene (IgM-/-). Acute disease developed with equal kinetics and severity in IgM-/- and syngeneic C57BL/6 (wt) mice. However, clinical disease progressed in IgM-/- mice, while wt mice recovered. Viral clearance during acute infection was similar in both groups, supporting a primary role of cell-mediated immunity in viral clearance. In contrast to wt mice, in which infectious virus was reduced to below detection following acute infection, increasing infectious virus was recovered from the CNS of the IgM-/- mice following initial clearance. No evidence was obtained for selection of variant viruses nor was there an apparent loss of cell-mediated immunity in the absence of Ab. Passive transfer of anti-JHMV Ab following initial clearance prevented reactivation of infectious virus within the CNS of IgM-/- mice. These data demonstrate the clearance of infectious virus during acute disease by cell-mediated immunity. However, immunologic control is not maintained in the absence of anti-viral Ab, resulting in recrudescence of infectious virus. These data suggest that humoral immunity plays no role in controlling virus during acute infection, but plays an important role in establishing and maintaining CNS viral persistence.  (+info)