Expression of murine coronavirus recombinant papain-like proteinase: efficient cleavage is dependent on the lengths of both the substrate and the proteinase polypeptides.
Proteolytic processing of the replicase gene product of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is essential for viral replication. In MHV strain A59 (MHV-A59), the replicase gene encodes two predicted papain-like proteinase (PLP) domains, PLP-1 and PLP-2. Previous work using viral polypeptide substrates synthesized by in vitro transcription and translation from the replicase gene demonstrated both cis and trans cleavage activities for PLP-1. We have cloned and overexpressed the PLP-1 domain in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase promoter system or as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion protein. With both overexpression systems, the recombinant PLP-1 exhibited trans cleavage activity when incubated with in vitro-synthesized viral polypeptide substrates. Subsequent characterization of the recombinant PLP-1 revealed that in vitro trans cleavage is more efficient at 22 degrees C than at higher temperatures. Using substrates of increasing lengths, we observed efficient cleavage by PLP-1 requires a substrate greater than 69 kDa. In addition, when PLP-1 was expressed as a polypeptide that included additional viral sequences at the carboxyl terminus of the predicted PLP-1 domain, a fivefold increase in proteolytic activity was observed. The data presented here support previous data suggesting that in vitro and in vivo cleavage of the ORF 1a polyprotein by PLP-1 can occur in both in cis and in trans. In contrast to the cleavage activity demonstrated for PLP-1, no in vitro cleavage in cis or in trans could be detected with PLP-2 expressed either as a polypeptide, including flanking viral sequences, or as an MBP fusion enzyme. (+info)
Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E.
Human coronaviruses (HuCV) cause common colds. Previous reports suggest that these infectious agents may be neurotropic in humans, as they are for some mammals. With the long-term aim of providing experimental evidence for the neurotropism of HuCV and the establishment of persistent infections in the nervous system, we have evaluated the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to acute and persistent infection by HuCV-229E. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, and oligodendrocytic MO3.13 cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-229E. The CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell line was not susceptible to infection by this virus. The MO3.13 and H4 cell lines also sustained a persistent viral infection, as monitored by detection of viral antigen and infectious virus progeny. Sequencing of the S1 gene from viral RNA after approximately 130 days of infection showed two point mutations, suggesting amino acid changes during persistent infection of MO3.13 cells but none for H4 cells. Thus, persistent in vitro infection did not generate important changes in the S1 portion of the viral spike protein, which was shown for murine coronaviruses to bear hypervariable domains and to interact with cellular receptor. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-229E in cells of the human nervous system, such as oligodendrocytes and possibly neurons, and the virus's apparent genomic stability. (+info)
Acute and persistent infection of human neural cell lines by human coronavirus OC43.
Human coronaviruses (HuCV) are recognized respiratory pathogens. Data accumulated by different laboratories suggest their neurotropic potential. For example, primary cultures of human astrocytes and microglia were shown to be susceptible to an infection by the OC43 strain of HuCV (A. Bonavia, N. Arbour, V. W. Yong, and P. J. Talbot, J. Virol. 71:800-806, 1997). We speculate that the neurotropism of HuCV will lead to persistence within the central nervous system, as was observed for murine coronaviruses. As a first step in the verification of our hypothesis, we have characterized the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny, and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, oligodendrocytic MO3.13, and the CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen and RNA and release of infectious virions were observed during persistent HuCV-OC43 infections ( approximately 130 days of culture) of U-87 MG, U-373 MG, MO3.13, and H4 cell lines. Nucleotide sequences of RNA encoding the putatively hypervariable viral S1 gene fragment obtained after 130 days of culture were compared to that of initial virus input. Point mutations leading to amino acid changes were observed in all persistently infected cell lines. Moreover, an in-frame deletion was also observed in persistently infected H4 cells. Some point mutations were observed in some molecular clones but not all, suggesting evolution of the viral population and the emergence of viral quasispecies during persistent infection of H4, U-87 MG, and MO3.13 cell lines. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-OC43 in cells of the human nervous system, accompanied by the production of infectious virions and molecular variation of viral genomic RNA. (+info)
Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus.
We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested. (+info)
Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus.
This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding. (+info)
A human RNA viral cysteine proteinase that depends upon a unique Zn2+-binding finger connecting the two domains of a papain-like fold .
A cysteine proteinase, papain-like proteinase (PL1pro), of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV) regulates the expression of the replicase polyproteins, pp1a and ppa1ab, by cleavage between Gly111 and Asn112, far upstream of its own catalytic residue Cys1054. In this report, using bioinformatics tools, we predict that, unlike its distant cellular homologues, HCoV PL1pro and its coronaviral relatives have a poorly conserved Zn2+ finger connecting the left and right hand domains of a papain-like fold. Optical emission spectrometry has been used to confirm the presence of Zn2+ in a purified and proteolytically active form of the HCoV PL1pro fused with the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. In denaturation/renaturation experiments using the recombinant protein, its activity was shown to be strongly dependent upon Zn2+, which could be partly substituted by Co2+ during renaturation. The reconstituted, Zn2+-containing PL1pro was not sensitive to 1,10-phenanthroline, and the Zn2+-depleted protein was not reactivated by adding Zn2+ after renaturation. Consistent with the proposed essential structural role of Zn2+, PL1pro was selectively inactivated by mutations in the Zn2+ finger, including replacements of any of four conserved Cys residues predicted to co-ordinate Zn2+. The unique domain organization of HCoV PL1pro provides a potential framework for regulatory processes and may be indicative of a nonproteolytic activity of this enzyme. (+info)
Evaluation of the baculovirus-expressed S glycoprotein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as antigen in a competition ELISA to differentiate porcine respiratory coronavirus from TGEV antibodies in pigs.
The spike (S) glycoprotein of the Miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was recently cloned and expressed in baculovirus. The recombinant S protein was used as the coating antigen in a competition (blocking) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in combination with monoclonal antibodies to the S protein epitope A (conserved on TGEV and porcine respiratory coronavirus [PRCV]) or epitope D (present on TGEV only) to differentiate PRCV- from TGEV-induced antibodies. One set (set A) of 125 serum samples were collected at different times after inoculation of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (n = 52) and conventional young pigs (n = 73) with 1 of the 2 porcine coronaviruses or uninoculated negative controls (TGEV/PRCV/negative = 75/30/20). A second set (set B) of 63 serum samples originated from adult sows inoculated with PRCV and the recombinant TGEV S protein or with mock-protein control and then exposed to virulent TGEV after challenge of their litters. Sera from set A were used to assess the accuracy indicators (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) of the fixed-cell blocking ELISA, which uses swine testicular cells infected with the M6 strain of TGEV as the antigen source (ELISA 1) and the newly developed ELISA based on the recombinant S protein as antigen (ELISA 2). The sera from set B (adults) were tested for comparison. The plaque reduction virus neutralization test was used as a confirmatory test for the presence of antibodies to TGEV/PRCV in the test sera. The accuracy indicators for both ELISAs suggest that differential diagnosis can be of practical use at least 3 weeks after inoculation by testing the dual (acute/convalescent) samples from each individual in conjunction with another confirmatory (virus neutralization) antibody assay to provide valid and complete differentiation information. Moreover, whereas ELISA 1 had 10-20% false positive results to epitope D for PRCV-infected pigs (set A samples), no false-positive results to epitope D occurred using ELISA 2, indicating its greater specificity. The progression of seroresponses to the TGEV S protein epitopes A or D, as measured by the 2 ELISAs, was similar for both sets (A and B) of samples. Differentiation between TGEV and PRCV antibodies (based on seroresponses to epitope D) was consistently measured after the third week of inoculation. (+info)
Development of an antigen spot test for detection of coronavirus in bovine fecal samples.
We have developed a rapid and sensitive microimmunodot blot assay, the antigen spot test (AST), for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen from neonatal calf fecal samples. The AST procedure can be completed in 3.5 h, whereas the previously reported immunodot blot assays require 10 to 12 h. Ninety-six samples can be tested per membrane, and 10 membranes (960 samples) may be processed by a single technologist in 1 working day. The effects of detergents, oxidizing chemicals, chaotropic agents, and enzyme substrates in improving the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the AST were studied. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of AST for the detection of BCV antigen were compared to those of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination assay (HA). Of 347 field samples tested by all three methods, 94.2% were positive by AST, 91.4% were positive by ELISA, and 86.7% were positive by HA. The sensitivity of the AST was determined to be 100% compared to the results of the ELISA reference method. The specificity of the AST was 67%, which reflects a lower limit of detection of 10(4) viral particles per ml in a 10% fecal suspension. (+info)