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(1/601) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: natural history and normal pregnancies.

Two female patients are described with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery who sustained an anterolateral myocardial infarction in infancy. Neither patient received surgical treatment although both have lived to middle age with minimal cardiovascular problems and have had uncomplicated pregnancies. Good exercise tolerance and long term survival may be possible even without surgery for patients with this anomaly.  (+info)

(2/601) Short left coronary artery trunk as a risk factor in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Pathological study.

The relation between the length of the main left coronary artery and the degree of atherosclerosis in its branches was studied by postmortem examination in 204 subjects aged 20 to 90 years. The findings suggest that in cases with a short main left coronary artery the atherosclerotic lesions in the anterior descending and circumflex branches appear earlier, progress faster at higher levels of severity, and lead more frequently to myocardial infarction, than in cases with a long left coronary artery trunk. In cases over the age of 50 years, where disease is expected to have developed, it was shown that the degree of atherosclerosis in the left anterior descending and circumflex branches was inversely related to the length of the main left coronary artery. The correlation coefficients were -0-527 and -0-428, respectively, and in either case a test for zero correlations was significant (P less than 0-001). The possible changes in the haemodynamic and mechanical conditions associated with the variations of the anatomical pattern of the coronary arteries and their influence in the development of atherosclerosis are discussed. It is suggested that the length of the main left coronary artery is a congenital anatomical and possibly hereditary factor influencing the rate of development of atherosclerosis in the branches of the main left coronary artery.  (+info)

(3/601) Coronary artery disease with single coronary artery.

The authors have reviewed the literature in search of the coexistence of single coronary artery with significant coronary artery disease. Two cases of single right coronary artery are described. In both, the anomalies were unsuspected and diagnosed roentgenographically in life. Both patients had angina pectoris, positive graded-exercise stress tests, and hemodynamically significant obstruction or occlusion to the coronary arteries. In neither case was the stenosis proximal or amenable to bypass surgery.  (+info)

(4/601) Evolution of risk factors influencing early mortality of the arterial switch operation.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to determine the independent risk factors for early mortality in the current era after arterial switch operation (ASO). BACKGROUND: Prior reports on factors affecting outcome of the ASO demonstrated that abnormal coronary arterial patterns were associated with increased risk of early mortality. As diagnostic, surgical and perioperative management techniques continue to evolve, the risk factors for the ASO may have changed. METHODS: All patients who underwent the ASO at Children's Hospital, Boston between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1996 were included. Hospital charts, echocardiographic and cardiac catheterization data and operative reports of all patients were reviewed. Demographics and preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 223 patients included in the study (median age at ASO = 6 days and median weight = 3.5 kg), 26 patients had aortic arch obstruction or interruption, 12 had Taussig-Bing anomaly, 12 had multiple ventricular septal defects, 8 had right ventricular hypoplasia and 6 were premature. There were 16 early deaths (7%), with 3 deaths in the 109 patients considered "low risk" (2.7%). Coronary artery pattern was not associated with an increased risk of death. Compared with usual coronary anatomy pattern, however, inverted coronary patterns and single right coronary patterns were associated with increased incidence of delayed sternal closure (p = 0.003) and longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.008). In a multivariate logistic regression model using only preoperative variables, aortic arch repair at a separate procedure before ASO and smaller birth weight were independent predictors of early mortality. In a second model that included both pre- and intraoperative variables, circulatory arrest time and right ventricular hypoplasia were independent predictors of early death. CONCLUSIONS: The ASO can be performed in the current era without excess early mortality related to uncommon coronary artery patterns. Aortic arch repair before ASO, right ventricular hypoplasia, lower birth weight and longer intraoperative support continue to be independent risk factors for early mortality after the ASO.  (+info)

(5/601) Unusual congenital coronary anomaly and myocardial ischaemia.

Angiography was used to diagnose a rare congenital coronary anomaly with myocardial ischaemia in a woman with typical angina. All three coronary arteries arose from a solitary coronary ostium in the right aortic sinus; the left anterior descending coronary artery followed a septal course, the circumflex coronary artery ran behind the ascending aorta, and the right coronary artery followed a normal course. No significant coronary lumen narrowing was found. Transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed the anomalous origin and course of the aberrant coronary arteries. An exercise test reproduced angina, and ECG changes and myocardial perfusion study showed an anterior reversible defect. In contrast to previous reports, myocardial ischaemia was associated with the septal (intramuscular) course of the left anterior descending coronary artery; there was no other significant coronary artery disease.  (+info)

(6/601) New signs characteristic of myocardial bridging demonstrated by intracoronary ultrasound and Doppler.

BACKGROUND: Large discrepancies exist concerning the incidence of myocardial bridging. This has been reported to be 0.5%-2.5% following coronary angiography but 15%-85% following autopsy. The purpose of the study was to use intravascular ultrasound and intracoronary Doppler to study the morphology and flow characteristics of myocardial bridging in order to find feasible parameters of this syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intravascular ultrasound was performed in 62/69 patients in whom typical angiographic 'milking effects' were present. In 48 patients, intracoronary Doppler was performed. A specific, echolucent 'half moon' phenomenon surrounding the myocardial bridge was found in all the patients. The thickness of the half moon area was 0.47 +/- 0.19 mm in diastole and 0.52 +/- 0.23 mm in systole. There was systolic compression of the myocardial bridge with a lumen reduction during systole of 36.4 +/- 8.8%. Using intracoronary Doppler, a characteristic early diastolic 'finger tip' phenomenon was observed in 42 (87%) of the patients. All patients showed no or reduced antegrade systolic flow. Coronary flow velocity reserve was 2.03 +/- 0. 54. After intracoronary nitroglycerin injection, retrograde systolic flow occurred in 37 (77%) of the 48 patients, with a velocity of -22. 2 +/- 13.2 cm. s(-1). Intravascular ultrasound revealed atherosclerotic involvement of the proximal segment in 61 (88%) of the 69 patients, with an area stenosis of 42 +/- 13%. No plaques were found in the bridge or distal segments in the 62 patients in whom it was possible to introduce the ultrasound catheter throughout the bridging segment. CONCLUSION: Myocardial bridging is characterized by the following morphological and functional signs: a specific, echolucent half moon phenomenon over the bridge segment, which exists throughout the cardiac cycle; systolic compression of the bridge segment of the coronary artery; accelerated flow velocity at early diastole (finger-tip phenomenon); no or reduced systolic antegrade flow; decreased diastolic/systolic velocity ratio; retrograde flow in the proximal segment, which is provoked and enhanced by nitroglycerin injection.  (+info)

(7/601) A 72 year old woman with ALCAPA.

ALCAPA syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery), which causes the left coronary artery to grow with an anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery, is a rare disease which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and sometimes death during the early infantile period. A 72 year old woman with ALCAPA syndrome is presented. The asymptomatic patient presented with a cardiac murmur which was discovered during a routine check up for a gynaecological intervention. Coronary cineangiography established the diagnosis. Although surgical correction is the usual treatment for such cases, medical treatment was preferred for this patient because she was asymptomatic without clinical signs of heart failure.  (+info)

(8/601) Mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor-B gene (Vegfb) have smaller hearts, dysfunctional coronary vasculature, and impaired recovery from cardiac ischemia.

Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) is closely related to VEGF-A, an effector of blood vessel growth during development and disease and a strong candidate for angiogenic therapies. To further study the in vivo function of VEGF-B, we have generated Vegfb knockout mice (Vegfb(-/-)). Unlike Vegfa knockout mice, which die during embryogenesis, Vegfb(-/-) mice are healthy and fertile. Despite appearing overtly normal, Vegfb(-/-) hearts are reduced in size and display vascular dysfunction after coronary occlusion and impaired recovery from experimentally induced myocardial ischemia. These findings reveal a role for VEGF-B in the development or function of coronary vasculature and suggest potential clinical use in therapeutic angiogenesis.  (+info)