Cord formation in MB/BacT medium is a reliable criterion for presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in laboratories with high prevalence of M. tuberculosis.
We evaluated cord formation in MB/BacT broth as a rapid method for presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Kinyoun acid-fast-stained smears from 370 positive MB/BacT bottles were examined for the presence of serpentine cording. The smears were examined independently by two observers. Observer 1 (the supervisor of the mycobacteriology laboratory) examined all of the smears while observer 2 (a clinical microbiologist not familiar with acid-fast bacillus [AFB] microscopy) examined 148 randomly chosen smears that were read by observer 1 without knowledge of which smear was which. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of cording for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis read by observer 1 were 88.2, 97.4, 99.2, and 69.7%, respectively. These values were reported at 90.6, 52.3, 82.8, and 69. 7%, respectively, by observer 2. Our laboratory prevalence of M. tuberculosis among positive cultures was 78% during the time this study was conducted. At the time of positive signal of the MB/BacT bottles, the broth of the bottles had sufficient cell mass to allow for observation of the presence or absence of serpentine cording. The presence of cords in MB/BacT broth is a reliable criterion for rapid, predictive identification of the M. tuberculosis complex for laboratories with a high proportion of the M. tuberculosis complex when the smears are examined by a microbiologist who has experience with AFB staining. (+info)
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (Cord factor) enhances neovascularization through vascular endothelial growth factor production by neutrophils and macrophages.
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) plays important roles in the development of granulomatous inflammation during infection with Mycobacterium spp., Rhodococcus spp., etc. To reveal the augmenting effect of TDM on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and neovascularization, we investigated murine granulomatous tissue air pouches induced by Rhodococcus sp. strain 4306 TDM dissolved in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), comparing them to pouches treated with FIA alone. Histologically, granulomatous tissue and new vessel formation, which reached a maximum at day 7, was greatly enhanced by treatment with TDM. At day 1, VEGF-positive neutrophils accumulated in the pouch wall with frequency of 95% of total infiltrating cells, adhering to TDM-containing micelles. By day 3, granulomatous tissue and new vessels started to develop, and VEGF-positive macrophages appeared in a small number and gradually increased in number thereafter. The pouch contents of VEGF, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta were significantly elevated in TDM-treated pouches, with peaks at days 1, 0.5, 1, and 3, respectively, compared to those of control pouches, while that of basic fibroblast growth factor showed no significant increase. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody inhibited TDM-induced granulomatous tissue formation and neovascularization, and administration of recombinant VEGF into pouches treated with FIA alone induced neovascularization comparable to that in the TDM-treated pouches. Incubation of neutrophils and macrophages on TDM-coated plastic dishes increased the VEGF release. The present results indicate that TDM augments VEGF production by neutrophils and macrophages and induces neovascularization in the granulomatous tissue. (+info)
Assessment of morphology for rapid presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis often exhibits serpentine cording when grown in liquid medium, whereas Mycobacterium kansasii can be larger and cross-barred. We assessed the use of these morphologic characteristics as a cost-effective method for rapid presumptive identification of isolates from BACTEC bottles. Without specific training, using the Kinyoun acid-fast stain, definitive cording was found in 237 of 373 specimens positive for M. tuberculosis (64%) and cross-barring was recognized within 63 of 76 (83%) of the specimens positive for M. kansasii, giving sensitivities specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of 63.5, 96, 92, and 79%, respectively, for M. tuberculosis and 83, 95, 59, and 98%, respectively, for M. kansasii. With training and experience, these results improved to 74.5, 98, 96, and 84% and 93, 98, 79, and 98%, respectively. The major improvements were in distinguishing the pseudocording, or loose aggregation of Mycobacterium avium complex from M. tuberculosis and the long beaded forms of Mycobacterium gordonae from M. kansasii. Mycobacterium asiaticum and Mycobacterium szulgai, which rarely occur, are genetically related to M. kansasii and morphologically difficult to distinguish. In defined circumstances, serpentine cording and cross-barring can be used for rapid presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii, respectively, and as guides for initial probe selection to reduce costs. (+info)
In vivo administration of mycobacterial cord factor (Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate) can induce lung and liver granulomas and thymic atrophy in rabbits.
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is a cell surface molecule of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TDM induced a loss of body weight and prominent granulomas in the liver and lungs by the intravenous injection of TDM into rabbits. TDM also induced atrophy of the thymus and spleen due to apoptosis. By contrast, sulfolipid (2,3,6, 6'-tetraacyl trehalose 2'-sulfate) induced neither toxicity, nor granuloma formation, nor atrophy of the thymus and spleen. In rabbits the histopathological changes were more dramatic than in mice. The rabbit model may be more sensitive and may provide more information on the beneficial or pathological effects of TDM. (+info)
How to establish a lasting relationship with your host: lessons learned from Mycobacterium spp.
Mycobacterium spp. enjoy an intracellular lifestyle that is fatal to most microorganisms. Bacilli persist and multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in the face of defences ranging from toxic oxygen and nitrogen radicals, acidic proteases and bactericidal peptides. Uptake of Mycobacterium by phagocytes results in the de novo formation of a phagosome, which is manipulated by the pathogen to accommodate its needs for intracellular survival and replication. The present review describes the intracellular compartment occupied by Mycobacterium spp. and presents current ideas on how mycobacteria may establish this niche, placing special emphasis on the involvement of mycobacterial cell wall lipids. (+info)
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces corneal angiogenesis in rats.
Neovascularization or angiogenesis is required for the progression of chronic inflammation. The mechanism of inflammatory neovascularization in tuberculosis remains unknown. Trehalose 6, 6'-dimycolate (TDM) purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was injected into rat corneas. TDM challenge provoked a local granulomatous response in association with neovascularization. Neovascularization was seen within a few days after the challenge, with the extent of neovascularization being dose dependent, although granulomatous lesions developed 14 days after the challenge. Cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were found in lesions at the early stage (within a few days after the challenge) and were detectable until day 21. Neovascularization was inhibited substantially by neutralizing antibodies to VEGF and IL-8 but not IL-1beta. Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies resulted in partial inhibition. TDM possesses pleiotropic activities, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the process of neovascularization. (+info)
New diagnostic approach for ocular tuberculosis by ELISA using the cord factor as antigen.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is difficult, particularly the retinal vasculitis type, because most cases occur without concurrent active pulmonary tuberculosis. Recently, it has been reported that detection of antibodies against purified cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, TDM), the best studied, most antigenic, and most abundant cell wall component of tubercule bacilli, is very useful for rapid serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate whether the detection of anticord factor antibody is also useful for diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis and the necessity of antituberculous therapy for tuberculous retinochoroiditis was discussed. METHODS: Cases consisted of 15 patients with uveitis and retinal vasculitis, nine patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis, three patients with sarcoidosis, and three patients with Behcet's disease. IgG antibodies against purified cord factor prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: All cases of clinically presumed ocular tuberculosis were positive, whereas all of the cases of sarcoidosis or Behcet's disease were negative for anticord factor antibodies. When the anticord factor antibody titres were compared on the basis of the presence or absence of previous antituberculosis chemotherapy, the mean anticord factor antibody titre of the untreated group showed a tendency to be higher than in the treated group, but not significantly (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of anticord factor antibody may be useful to support the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Additionally, a positive result for anticord factor antibody may indicate that tubercule bacilli are present in some organ(s) of the patient even in the absence of active systemic disease. (+info)
Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (cord factor) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces foreign-body- and hypersensitivity-type granulomas in mice.
Granulomatous inflammation is characterized morphologically by a compact organized collection of macrophages and their derivatives. It is classified as either a hypersensitivity type or a foreign-body type. Lipid components of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall participate in the pathogenesis of infection. Strains of M. tuberculosis have cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) on their surface. To clarify host responses to TDM, including immunogenicity and pathogenicity, we have analyzed the footpad reaction, histopathology, and cytokine profiles of experimental granulomatous lesions in immunized and unimmunized mice challenged with TDM. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time that TDM can induce both foreign-body-type (nonimmune) and hypersensitivity-type (immune) granulomas by acting as a nonspecific irritant and T-cell-dependent antigen. Immunized mice challenged with TDM developed more severe lesions than unimmunized mice. At the active lesion, we found monocyte chemotactic, proinflammatory, and immunoregulatory cytokines. The level was enhanced in immunized mice challenged with TDM. This result implies that both nonimmune and immune mechanisms participate in granulomatous inflammation induced by mycobacterial infection. Taken together with a previous report, this study shows that TDM is a pleiotropic molecule against the host and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. (+info)