Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/7019)

The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel.  (+info)

Internal electron transfer between hemes and Cu(II) bound at cysteine beta93 promotes methemoglobin reduction by carbon monoxide. (2/7019)

Previous studies showed that CO/H2O oxidation provides electrons to drive the reduction of oxidized hemoglobin (metHb). We report here that Cu(II) addition accelerates the rate of metHb beta chain reduction by CO by a factor of about 1000. A mechanism whereby electron transfer occurs via an internal pathway coupling CO/H2O oxidation to Fe(III) and Cu(II) reduction is suggested by the observation that the copper-induced rate enhancement is inhibited by blocking Cys-beta93 with N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, this internal electron-transfer pathway is more readily established at low Cu(II) concentrations in Hb Deer Lodge (beta2His --> Arg) and other species lacking His-beta2 than in Hb A0. This difference is consistent with preferential binding of Cu(II) in Hb A0 to a high affinity site involving His-beta2, which is ineffective in promoting electron exchange between Cu(II) and the beta heme iron. Effective electron transfer is thus affected by Hb type but is not governed by the R left arrow over right arrow T conformational equilibrium. The beta hemes in Cu(II)-metHb are reduced under CO at rates close to those observed for cytochrome c oxidase, where heme and copper are present together in the oxygen-binding site and where internal electron transfer also occurs.  (+info)

Negligible amount of copper in hepatic L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. (3/7019)

During the purification of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a protohemoprotein from rat liver, both copper and heme contents of the preparations were found to be progressively increased as purification proceeded. However, the greater part of copper was removed in the late stages of the purification giving a copper to heme ratio less than 0.4. The small amounts of copper could further be reduced by one-half, by a mild treatment of enzyme with chelators such as ethylenedi aminetetraacetate, without any accompanying decrease in enzymatic activity. Since the turnover number of these enzyme preparations expressed per mol of enzyme-bound heme, 200 to 277 min-1 at 25 degrees, were either comparable to or slightly higher than those reported with homogeneous enzyme preparations, the heme in the preparation was considered to be of fully active L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and, therefore, such a small ratio of copper to heme, 0.1 to 0.3, indicated that copper is not a constituent of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase of rat liver. The findings were thus inconsistent with the results of Brady et al. (Brady, F. O., Monaco, M. E. Forman, H. J. Schutz, G., and Feigelson, P. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7915-7922), who found that L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase contained 2 g atoms of copper and 2 mol of heme/mol of enzyme. Possible reasons for this discrepancy have been discussed.  (+info)

Characterisation of copper-binding to the second sub-domain of the Menkes protein ATPase (MNKr2). (4/7019)

The Menkes ATPase (MNK) has an essential role in the translocation of copper across cellular membranes. In a complementary manner, the intracellular concentration of copper regulates the activity and cellular location of the ATPase through its six homologous amino-terminal domains. The roles of the six amino-terminal domains in the activation and cellular trafficking processes are unknown. Understanding the role of these domains relies on the development of an understanding of their metal-binding properties and structural properties. The second conserved sub-domain of MNK was over-expressed, purified and its copper-binding properties characterised. Reconstitution studies demonstrate that copper binds to MNKr2 as Cu(I) with a stoichiometry of one copper per domain. This is the first direct evidence of copper-binding to the MNK amino-terminal repeats. Circular dichroism studies suggest that the binding or loss of copper to MNKr2 does not cause substantial changes to the secondary structure of the protein.  (+info)

Computed radiography dual energy subtraction: performance evaluation when detecting low-contrast lung nodules in an anthropomorphic phantom. (5/7019)

A dedicated chest computed radiography (CR) system has an option of energy subtraction (ES) acquisition. Two imaging plates, rather than one, are separated by a copper filter to give a high-energy and low-energy image. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy of conventional computed radiography to that of ES obtained with two radiographic techniques. One soft tissue only image was obtained at the conventional CR technique (s = 254) and the second was obtained at twice the radiation exposure (s = 131) to reduce noise. An anthropomorphic phantom with superimposed low-contrast lung nodules was imaged 53 times for each radiographic technique. Fifteen images had no nodules; 38 images had a total of 90 nodules placed on the phantom. Three chest radiologists read the three sets of images in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. Significant differences in Az were only found between (1) the higher exposure energy subtracted images and the conventional dose energy subtracted images (P = .095, 90% confidence), and (2) the conventional CR and the energy subtracted image obtained at the same technique (P = .024, 98% confidence). As a result of this study, energy subtracted images cannot be substituted for conventional CR images when detecting low-contrast nodules, even when twice the exposure is used to obtain them.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (6/7019)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

The pro-phenoloxidase of coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor, larvae was activated during cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions. (7/7019)

To characterize the proteins involved in cell clump/cell adhesion of insect cellular defense reactions, we induced the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction in vitro with the hemolymph of larvae of the coleopteran insect, Tenebrio molitor. The 72 kDa protein was specifically enriched in the residues of cell clump/cell adhesion and was purified to homogeneity. A cDNA clone for the 72 kDa protein was isolated. We found that the 72 kDa protein was an activated phenoloxidase from Tenebrio pro-phenoloxidase. We suggest that activated phenoloxidase is involved in the cell clump/cell adhesion reaction as well as in the synthesis of melanin.  (+info)

Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. (8/7019)

Cryptocyanin, a copper-free hexameric protein in crab (Cancer magister) hemolymph, has been characterized and the amino acid sequence has been deduced from its cDNA. It is markedly similar in sequence, size, and structure to hemocyanin, the copper-containing oxygen-transport protein found in many arthropods. Cryptocyanin does not bind oxygen, however, and lacks three of the six highly conserved copper-binding histidine residues of hemocyanin. Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, although a phenoloxidase is present in the hemolymph. The concentration of cryptocyanin in the hemolymph is closely coordinated with the molt cycle and reaches levels higher than hemocyanin during premolt. Cryptocyanin resembles insect hexamerins in the lack of copper, molt cycle patterns of biosynthesis, and potential contributions to the new exoskeleton. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence similarities between cryptocyanin and other members of the hemocyanin gene family shows that cryptocyanin is closely associated with crustacean hemocyanins and suggests that cryptocyanin arose as a result of a hemocyanin gene duplication. The presence of both hemocyanin and cryptocyanin in one animal provides an example of how insect hexamerins might have evolved from hemocyanin. Our results suggest that multiple members of the hemocyanin gene family-hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, phenoloxidase, and hexamerins-may participate in two vital functions of molting animals, oxygen binding and molting. Cryptocyanin may provide important molecular data to further investigate evolutionary relationships among all molting animals.  (+info)