Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Cuscuta reflexa.
Two new compounds, 7'-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]propenamide (4), and 7'-(4'-hydroxy,3'-methoxyphenyl)-N-[(4-butylphenyl)ethyl]propenamide (5) have been isolated from Cuscuta reflexa along with five known compounds, 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (1), 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ethanoate (2), 6,7,8-trimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (3), 3-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ol (6), 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-4H-1-benzo pyrane-4-one (7), reported for the first time from this species. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectral analysis. These compounds showed strong inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. (+info)
Signal transduction controlling the blue- and red-light mediated gene expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Pharbitis nil.
The signal transduction processes involved in the regulation of SAMDC gene expression by blue and red light were examined using pharmacological inhibitors of signalling pathways. Calcium and calmodulin positively regulated SAMDC gene expression in red light, whereas in blue light they regulated negatively. These results indicate that calcium homeostasis is involved in both red and blue light induction of SAMDC expression. Both signal transduction pathways also require new protein synthesis. (+info)
Immunohistochemistry of active gibberellins and gibberellin-inducible alpha-amylase in developing seeds of morning glory.
Gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) were quantified and localized by immunostaining. The starch grains began to be digested after the GA contents had increased and reached a plateau. Immunohistochemical staining with the antigibberellin A(1)-methyl ester-antiserum, which has high affinity to biologically active GAs, showed that GA(1) and/or GA(3) were localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds, suggesting the participation of GA-inducible alpha-amylase in this digestion. We isolated an alpha-amylase cDNA (PnAmy1) that was expressed in the immature seeds, and using an antibody raised against recombinant protein, it was shown that PnAmy1 was expressed in the immature seeds. GA responsiveness of PnAmy1 was shown by treating the young fruits 9 d after anthesis with GA(3). RNA-blot and immunoblot analyses showed that PnAmy1 emerged soon after the rapid increase of GA(1/3). An immunohistochemical analysis of PnAmy1 showed that it, like the seed GA(1/3), was also localized around starch grains in the integument of developing young seeds. The localization of GA(1/3) in the integument coincident with the expression of PnAmy1 suggests that both function as part of a process to release sugars for translocation or for the further development of the seeds. (+info)
Dodder infection induces the expression of a pathogenesis-related gene of the family PR-10 in alfalfa.
A full-length cDNA, PPRG2, representing a gene highly expressed in dodder (Cuscuta trifolii Bab et. Gibs)-infected alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems was isolated by differential screening. The predicted protein contains 157 amino acids and belongs to the PR-10 family of the pathogenesis-related genes with putative ribonuclease activities. Northern hybridizations showed that PPRG2 is transcribed in root and crops of uninfected alfalfa and is induced not only by dodder attack but also by bacterial infections and a large variety of environmental stresses. (+info)
Candida leandrae sp. nov., an asexual ascomycetous yeast species isolated from tropical plants.
The novel yeast species Candida leandrae is described based on eight isolates from decaying fruits of Leandra reversa Cogn. (Melastomataceae) in an Atlantic rainforest site in Brazil, one from a Convolvulaceae flower in Costa Rica and one from a drosophilid in Hawai'i. The strains differed in their colony morphology, one being butyrous and smooth and the other being filamentous and rugose. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene from both morphotypes were identical. C. leandrae belongs to the Kodamaea clade and is closely related to Candida restingae. The two species can be separated on the basis of growth at 37 degrees C and the assimilation of melezitose, negative in the novel species. The type culture of C. leandrae is strain UNESP 00-64R(T) (=CBS 9735(T)=NRRL Y-27757(T)). (+info)
Structures of new flavonoids, erycibenins D, E, and F, and NO production inhibitors from Erycibe expansa originating in Thailand.
A new flavanol, erycibenin D, and two new flavans, erycibenins E and F, were isolated from the stems of Erycibe expansa originating in Thailand. The structures of new flavonoids were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the inhibitory activities of the isolated constituents from E. expansa on lipopolysaccharide-activated nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages were examined. Among the principal constituents, two isoflavones, clycosin (IC50 = 13 microM) and erythrinin B (18 microM), and two rotenoids, deguelin (26 microM) and rotenone (27 microM), were found to show potent inhibitory activity. (+info)
Anti-stress constituents of Evolvulus alsinoides: an ayurvedic crude drug.
Bioactivity-guided purification of n-BuOH soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of Evolvulus alsinoides resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutyl 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutoxy)-phenyl]-2-propenoate (1) and 1,3-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid methyl ester (2) along with six known compounds, caffeic acid (3), 6-methoxy-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside coumarin (4), 2-C-methyl erythritol (5), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (7) and quecetine-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8). The structure of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, while known compounds were confirmed by direct comparison of their NMR data with those reported in literature. This is the first report of the presence of phenolic constituents in Evolvulus alsinoides. The isolated compounds 1-5 and 8 were screened for anti-stress activity in acute stress induced biochemical changes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Stress exposure has resulted in significant increase of plasma glucose, adrenal gland weight, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone levels. Compound 1 displayed most promising antistress effect by normalizing hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, CK and adrenal hypertrophy, while compounds 2 and 3 were also effective in normalizing most of these stress parameters, however compounds 4, 5 and 8 were ineffective in normalizing these parameters. (+info)
Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae).
BACKGROUND: The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. RESULTS: Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. CONCLUSION: Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some photosynthetic ability, most likely for nutrient apportionment to their seeds, while complete loss of photosynthesis and possible loss of the entire chloroplast genome is limited to a single small clade of outcrossing species found primarily in western South America. (+info)