A sequence-ready BAC clone contig of a 2.2-Mb segment of human chromosome 1q24.
Human chromosomal region 1q24 encodes two cloned disease genes and lies within large genetic inclusion intervals for several disease genes that have yet to be identified. We have constructed a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contig that spans over 2 Mb of 1q24 and consists of 78 clones connected by 100 STSs. The average density of mapped STSs is one of the highest described for a multimegabase region of the human genome. The contig was efficiently constructed by generating STSs from clone ends, followed by library walking. Distance information was added by determining the insert sizes of all clones, and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes were incorporated to create a partial transcript map of the region, providing candidate genes for local disease loci. The gene order and content of the region provide insight into ancient duplication events that have occurred on proximal 1q. The stage is now set for further elucidation of this interesting region through large-scale sequencing. (+info)
Pleiotropic skeletal and ocular phenotypes of the mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus (ch/Mf1) arise from a winged helix/forkhead transcriptionfactor gene.
Congenital hydrocephalus is an etiologically diverse, poorly understood, but relatively common birth defect. Most human cases are sporadic with familial forms showing considerable phenotypic and etiologic heterogeneity. We have studied the autosomal recessive mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus ( ch ) to identify candidate human hydrocephalus genes and their modifiers. ch mice have a congenital, lethal hydrocephalus in association with multiple developmental defects, notably skeletal defects, in tissues derived from the cephalic neural crest. We utilized positional cloning methods to map ch in the vicinity of D13Mit294 and confirm that the ch phenotype is caused by homozygosity for a nonsense mutation in a gene encoding a winged helix/forkhead transcription factor ( Mf1 ). Based on linked genetic markers, we performed detailed phenotypic characterization of mutant homozygotes and heterozygotes to demonstrate the pleiotropic effects of the mutant gene. Surprisingly, ch heterozygotes have the glaucoma-related distinct phenotype of multiple anterior segment defects resembling Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. We also localized a second member of this gene family ( Hfh1 ), a candidate for other developmental defects, approximately 470 kb proximal to Mf1. (+info)
Evidence for an ancient chromosomal duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana by sequencing and analyzing a 400-kb contig at the APETALA2 locus on chromosome 4.
As part of the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis program, a contiguous region (396607 bp) located on chromosome 4 around the APETALA2 gene was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence and comparison to public databases predicts 103 genes in this area, which represents a gene density of one gene per 3.85 kb. Almost half of the genes show no significant homology to known database entries. In addition, the first 45 kb of the contig, which covers 11 genes, is similar to a region on chromosome 2, as far as coding sequences are concerned. This observation indicates that ancient duplications of large pieces of DNA have occurred in Arabidopsis. (+info)
A contiguous 3-Mb sequence-ready map in the S3-MX region on 21q22.2 based on high- throughput nonisotopic library screenings.
Progress in complete genomic sequencing of human chromosome 21 relies on the construction of high-quality bacterial clone maps spanning large chromosomal regions. To achieve this goal, we have applied a strategy based on nonradioactive hybridizations to contig building. A contiguous sequence-ready map was constructed in the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region in 21q22.2, as a framework for large-scale genomic sequencing and positional candidate gene approach. Contig assembly was performed essentially by high throughput nonisotopic screenings of genomic libraries, prior to clone validation by (1) restriction digest fingerprinting, (2) STS analysis, (3) Southern hybridizations, and (4) FISH analysis. The contig contains a total of 50 STSs, of which 13 were newly isolated. A minimum tiling path (MTP) was subsequently defined that consists of 20 PACs, 2 BACs, and 5 cosmids covering 3 Mb between D21S3 and MX1. Gene distribution in the region includes 9 known genes (c21-LRP, WRB, SH3BGR, HMG14, PCP4, DSCAM, MX2, MX1, and TMPRSS2) and 14 new additional gene signatures consisting of cDNA selection products and ESTs. Forthcoming genomic sequence information will unravel the structural organization of potential candidate genes involved in specific features of Down syndrome pathogenesis. (+info)
Expressed sequence tags from immature female sexual organ of a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha.
A total of 970 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones were generated from immature female sexual organ of a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. The 376 ESTs resulted in 123 redundant groups, thus the total number of unique sequences in the EST set was 717. Database search by BLAST algorithm showed that 302 of the unique sequences shared significant similarities to known nucleotide or amino acid sequences. Six unique sequences showed significant similarities to genes that are involved in flower development and sexual reproduction, such as cynarase, fimbriata-associated protein and S-receptor kinase genes. The remaining unique 415 sequences have no significant similarity with any database-registered genes or proteins. The redundant 123 ESTs implied the presence of gene families and abundant transcripts of unknown identity. Analyses of the coding sequences of 61 unique sequences, which contained no ambiguous bases in the predicted coding regions, highly homologous to known sequences at the amino acid level with a similarity score greater than 400, and with stop codons at similar positions as their possible orthologues, indicated the presence of biased codon usage and higher GC content within the coding sequences (50.4%) than that within 3' flanking sequences (41.9%). (+info)
Refinement of the RP17 locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, construction of a YAC contig and investigation of the candidate gene retinal fascin.
The RP17 locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa has previously been mapped to chromosome 17q by linkage analysis. Two unrelated South African families are linked to this locus and the identification of key recombination events assigned the RP17 locus to a 10 cM interval on 17q22. The work reported here refines the mapping of the locus from a 10 cM to a 1 cM interval between the microsatellite markers D17S1604 and D17S948. A physical map of this interval was constructed using information from the Whitehead/MIT YAC contig WC 17.8. Sequence-tagged site (STS) content mapping of seven overlapping YACs from this contig was employed in order to build the map. A BAC library was screened to cover a gap in the YAC contig and two positive BACs were identified. Intragenic polymorphisms in the retinal fascin gene provided evidence for the exclusion of this candidate as the RP17 disease gene. (+info)
Revealing hidden interval graph structure in STS-content data.
MOTIVATION: STS-content data for genomic mapping contain numerous errors and anomalies resulting in cross-links among distant regions of the genome. Identification of contigs within the data is an important and difficult problem. RESULTS: This paper introduces a graph algorithm which creates a simplified view of STS-content data. The shape of the resulting structure graph provides a quality check - coherent data produce a straight line, while anomalous data produce branches and loops. In the latter case, it is sometimes possible to disentangle the various paths into subsets of the data covering contiguous regions of the genome, i.e. contigs. These straight subgraphs can then be analyzed in standard ways to construct a physical map. A theoretical basis for the method is presented along with examples of its application to current STS data from human genome centers. AVAILABILITY: Freely available on request. (+info)
Comparative mapping of the region of human chromosome 7 deleted in williams syndrome.
Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex developmental disorder resulting from the deletion of a large (approximately 1.5-2 Mb) segment of human chromosome 7q11.23. Physical mapping studies have revealed that this deleted region, which contains a number of known genes, is flanked by several large, nearly identical blocks of DNA. The presence of such highly related DNA segments in close physical proximity to one another has hampered efforts to elucidate the precise long-range organization of this segment of chromosome 7. To gain insight about the structure and evolutionary origins of this important and complex genomic region, we have constructed a fully contiguous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) contig map encompassing the corresponding region on mouse chromosome 5. In contrast to the difficulties encountered in constructing a clone-based physical map of the human WS region, the BAC/PAC-based map of the mouse WS region was straightforward to construct, with no evidence of large duplicated segments, such as those encountered in the human WS region. To confirm this difference, representative human and mouse BACs were used as probes for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Human BACs derived from the nonunique portion of the WS region hybridized to multiple, closely spaced regions on human chromosome 7q11.23. In contrast, corresponding mouse BACs hybridized to a single site on mouse chromosome 5. Furthermore, FISH analysis revealed the presence of duplicated segments within the WS region of various nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon). Hybridization was also noted at the genomic locations corresponding to human chromosome 7p22 and 7q22 in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, but not in the other animal species examined. Together, these results indicate that the WS region is associated with large, duplicated blocks of DNA on human chromosome 7q11.23 as well as the corresponding genomic regions of other nonhuman primates. However, such duplications are not present in the mouse. (+info)