Over-the-counter human drugs; labeling requirements; final rule; technical amendment. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule; technical amendment. (33/566)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation that established a standardized format and standardized content requirements for the labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products, and is amending several related OTC drug product labeling regulations. This amendment corrects and conforms several aspects of the new labeling requirements to other regulatory provisions and eliminates unnecessary text from the new labeling regulation.  (+info)

Cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, and antiasthmatic drug products for over-the-counter human use; amendment of final monograph for OTC antitussive drug products. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule. (34/566)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph for over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive drug products (products that relieve cough). Use of topical/inhalant products containing camphor or menthol near a flame, in hot water, or in a microwave oven may cause the products to splatter and cause serious burns to the user. As part of its ongoing review of OTC drug products, FDA is adding warnings and directions to inform consumers about these improper uses and is amending its final regulations for OTC drug labeling requirements to add this new flammability warning for antitussive drug products containing camphor or menthol.  (+info)

Blood substitutes. Artificial oxygen carriers: perfluorocarbon emulsions. (35/566)

Perfluorocarbon emulsions are being clinically evaluated as artificial oxygen carriers to reduce allogeneic blood transfusions or to improve tissue oxygenation. Perfluorocarbon emulsions are efficacious in animal experiments, and in humans they are well tolerated and at least as successful to reverse physiologic transfusion triggers than autologous blood. Perfluorocarbon emulsions may be used in the future in the concept of augmented acute normovolaemic haemodilution. In this concept relatively low preoperative haemoglobin levels are targeted during preoperative normovolaemic haemodilution and a perfluorocarbon emulsion is given to augment oxygen delivery during surgery when low endogenous haemoglobin levels are expected. The autologous blood is subsequently retransfused in the postoperative period when the patient's oxygenation is provided primarily by the endogenous haemoglobin. Additional uses of perfluorocarbon emulsions will include treatments of diseases with compromised tissue oxygenation such as cerebral or myocardial ischaemia, air embolism and emergency or trauma surgery as long as no allogeneic blood is available.  (+info)

Oral cefixime is similar to continued intravenous antibiotics in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer. (36/566)

Empiric oral antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenic cancer patients has been suggested as a means to decrease hospitalization, but the safety of this approach has not been adequately studied in children. We compared continued iv antibiotic therapy with switching treatment to orally administered cefixime in a group of selected febrile neutropenic children for whom blood cultures were sterile after 48 h of incubation. Two hundred episodes of febrile neutropenia were studied (156 patients), and 100 episodes were randomized to receive each treatment. Failure to respond to therapy was defined by documented or suspected bacterial infection, recurrent fever, or discontinuation of assigned therapy for any reason before neutropenia resolved. Rates of treatment failure were similar in the oral cefixime group (28%) and in the iv antibiotic group (27%; P=1.0). Results support the safety of oral cefixime therapy for low-risk febrile neutropenic children, a therapeutic approach that would facilitate earlier outpatient management and decrease the costs of treatment.  (+info)

Choosing a route of administration for quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: intramuscular versus subcutaneous. (37/566)

A clinical trial was conducted to compare intramuscular (im) with subcutaneous (sc) routes for administration of quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in 141 adults. Safety assessment showed the im route had reduced erythema (P<.01) and reduced headache on days 1 and 2 (P<.05). Serological testing for serum bactericidal antibody titers against capsular groups A and C did not detect significant differences.  (+info)

Novel allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor vaccine for pancreatic cancer: a phase I trial of safety and immune activation. (38/566)

PURPOSE: Allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor vaccines can cure established tumors in the mouse, but their efficacy against human tumors is uncertain. We have developed a novel GM-CSF-secreting pancreatic tumor vaccine. To determine its safety and ability to induce antitumor immune responses, we conducted a phase I trial in patients with surgically resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Eight weeks after pancreaticoduodenectomy, three patients received 1 x 10(7) vaccine cells, three patients received 5 x 10(7) vaccine cells, three patients received 10 x 10(7) vaccine cells, and five patients received 50 x 10(7) vaccine cells. Twelve of 14 patients then went on to receive a 6-month course of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. One month after completing adjuvant treatment, six patients still in remission received up to three additional monthly vaccinations with the same vaccine dose that they had received originally. RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered. Vaccination induced increased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to autologous tumor cells in three patients who had received >or= 10 x 10(7) vaccine cells. These three patients also seemed to have had an increased disease-free survival time, remaining disease-free at least 25 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting tumor vaccines are safe in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This vaccine approach seems to induce dose-dependent systemic antitumor immunity as measured by increased postvaccination DTH responses against autologous tumors. Further clinical evaluation of this approach in patients with pancreatic cancer is warranted.  (+info)

Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic pharmacodynamics of loratadine with concomitant administration of ketoconazole or cimetidine. (39/566)

AIMS: To evaluate whether ketoconazole or cimetidine alter the pharmacokinetics of loratadine, or its major metabolite, desloratadine (DCL), or alter the effects of loratadine or DCL on electrocardiographic repolarization in healthy adult volunteers. METHODS: Two randomized, evaluator-blind, multiple-dose, three-way crossover drug interaction studies were performed. In each study, subjects received three 10 day treatments in random sequence, separated by a 14 day washout period. The treatments were loratadine alone, cimetidine or ketoconazole alone, or loratadine plus cimetidine or ketoconazole. The primary study endpoint was the difference in mean QTc intervals from baseline to day 10. In addition, plasma concentrations of loratadine, DCL, and ketoconazole or cimetidine were obtained on day 10. RESULTS: Concomitant administration of loratadine and ketoconazole significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (307%; 90% CI 205-428%) and DCL concentrations (73%; 62-85%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Concomitant administration of loratadine and cimetidine significantly increased the loratadine plasma concentrations (103% increase; 70-142%) but not DCL concentrations (6% increase; 1-11%) compared with administration of loratadine alone. Cimetidine or ketoconazole plasma concentrations were unaffected by coadministration with loratadine. Despite increased concentrations of loratadine and DCL, there were no statistically significant differences for the primary electrocardiographic repolarization parameter (QTc) among any of the treatment groups. No other clinically relevant changes in the safety profile of loratadine were observed as assessed by electrocardiographic parameters (mean (90% CI) QTc changes: loratadine vs loratadine + ketoconazole = 3.6 ms (-2.2, 9.4); loratadine vs loratadine + cimetidine = 3.2 ms (-1.6, 7.9)), clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Loratadine 10 mg daily was devoid of any effects on electrocardiographic parameters when coadministered for 10 days with therapeutic doses of ketoconazole or cimetidine in healthy volunteers. It is concluded that, although there was a significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ketoconazole or cimetidine and loratadine, this effect was not accompanied by a change in the QTc interval in healthy adult volunteers.  (+info)

Keep food safe to eat: healthful food must be safe as well as nutritious. (40/566)

The inclusion of food safety in the 2000 edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an important step toward ensuring their continued relevance for health promotion and disease prevention. The inclusion of food safety is consistent with the original intent of the Guidelines and the increased focus on food safety today; it also better reflects current knowledge about diet and long-term health. A wide spectrum of surveillance methods can be used to monitor progress in reducing the incidence of foodborne illness, from surveys of food safety attitudes to epidemiologic data on foodborne illness. Surveillance data show that progress is being made, but that much work remains to be done. Strategies for reducing foodborne illness require a farm-to-table approach and the involvement of all those who have a responsibility for food safety, i.e., government, industry and the public. Federal agencies and others are finding it useful to use a risk analysis framework, i.e., risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as a means of organizing available information, identifying data gaps, quantifying risks for specific pathogens and foods, and presenting strategies for improvement. Food safety education is a critical part of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness and complements regulatory, research and other activities.  (+info)