Infra-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm arising after occlusion of the ipsilateral vertebral artery--case report.
(9/148)An 85-year-old woman had subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a very rare left infra-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm, a saccular aneurysm located proximally at the junction of vertebral artery (VA) and PICA. Right vertebral angiography demonstrated the aneurysm since the left VA was occluded in the extracranial portion. The aneurysm projected in the opposite direction to common VA-PICA aneurysms. The angiographical and intraoperative findings imply this rare aneurysm resulted from the hemodynamic changes caused by the VA occlusion. Detailed exploration of angiography is emphasized to detect such rare aneurysms among the diversity of hemodynamic patterns in elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. (+info)
Unusual arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern in an adult presenting with apneic spells and normal pressure hydrocephalus--case report.
(10/148)A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus, lower cranial nerve pareses, and pyramidal and cerebellar signs associated with respiratory disturbances. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7 x 5.4 cm quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst causing severe compression of the tectum and entire brain stem, aqueduct, and cerebellum, associated with moderate dilation of the third and lateral ventricles. Emergency surgery was undertaken due to sudden loss of consciousness and impaired breathing. The cyst was totally removed by midline suboccipital craniotomy in the prone position. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved except for the ataxia and impaired breathing. She was monitored cautiously for over 15 days. CT at discharge on the 18th postoperative day revealed decreased cyst size to 3.9 x 4.1 cm. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of the arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern. The patient died of respiratory problems on the 5th day after discharge. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts may compress the brain stem and cause severe respiratory disturbances, which can be fatal due to apneic spells. Patients should be monitored continuously in the preoperative and postoperative period until the restoration of autonomous ventilation is achieved. (+info)
Epidemiological and serological aspects in canine toxoplasmosis in animals with nervous symptoms.
(11/148)The presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies was studied in samples of blood serum taken from eighty dogs with nervous symptoms at the Servico de Enfermidades Infecciosas dos Animais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Unesp, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of IgG titers were 16 (13.7%), 64 (13.7%), and 256 (5%), and for IgM titers were 16 (7.5%), 64 (15%), and 256 (8.7%). Positive reactions were more frequent in the older animals, males, from a rural environment, in constant contact with small animals, principally birds and rodents. There was a higher frequency of a positive reaction in dogs fed with kitchen food, especially in those fed with raw ingredients. The most common neurological pictures were alterations in consciousness, in movement, and in the hand-cart test. The percentage of reagents with specific IgM antibodies was high, indicating active infections, but the possibility of co-infection with the distemper virus can not be discarded, and this may be a predisposing factor for toxoplasmosis infection, once the distemper virus has a potent immunosuppressive action. (+info)
Anterior cerebral artery dissections manifesting as cerebral hemorrhage and infarction, and presenting as dynamic angiographical changes--case report.
(12/148)A 65-year-old woman presented with multiple dissecting aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) manifesting as hemiparesis on the right with dominance in the lower extremity. Computed tomography revealed hematoma in the left frontal lobe, corresponding to the area perfused by the callosomarginal artery. Initial angiography showed string sign and occlusion in the distal portion of the left callosomarginal artery and abnormal feeding suggesting double lumen of the A2 portion of the left ACA. The patient was treated conservatively under a diagnosis of multiple spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the left ACA. Repeat angiography on Day 8 showed improvement of the string sign and occlusion in the left callosomarginal artery, and change of the double lumen of the A2 portion into string sign. Further angiography on Day 36 showed normalization of the left callosomarginal artery and improvement of the string sign in the A2 portion. Multiple spontaneous dissecting aneurysms of the ACA are extremely rare. Serial angiography beginning in the early stage will be important for correct diagnosis. (+info)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by dural arteriovenous fistula of the sphenobasal sinus--case report.
(13/148)A 59-year-old woman presented with a rare middle fossa dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) unrelated to the cavernous sinus manifesting only as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed shunts between the meningeal branches of both the internal and external carotid arteries and the sphenobasal sinus. The AVF drained into the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) which had a varix and an anastomosis to a superior cerebral vein. The arterial supply vessels were eliminated surgically and the sinus was excised. Bleeding did not recur and there was no venous infarction. Dural AVF of the sphenoparietal sinus is associated with pulsatile exophthalmos and dural AVF of the sphenopetrosal sinus with tinnitus, but dural AVF of the sphenobasal sinus has no obvious symptom. Simple interruption of the SMCV at the penetration of the arachnoid membrane was possible because of the absence of a draining vessel to preserve AVF patency, but the arteries were eliminated in this patient to prevent formation of another AVF. (+info)
Recovery from marked altered consciousness in a patient with adult-onset type II citrullinemia diagnosed by DNA analysis and treated with a living related partial liver transplantation.
(14/148)A 21-year-old woman was admitted with altered consciousness and hyperammonemia. She was diagnosed as having adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) by DNA analysis. The patient had mutations of the SLC25A13 gene, which were compound heterozygotes of 851 del 4 and IVS11+1G>A. CTLN2 has a poor prognosis, in spite of various intensive medications, and we performed a living related partial liver transplantation (LRLT). Over a 2-year follow-up, the patient has been well. CTLN2 can be diagnosed by the DNA analysis and can be treated by LRLT. (+info)
Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from Manchester Royal Infirmary. Computed tomography and the exclusion of upper cervical spine injury in trauma patients with altered mental state.
(15/148)A short cut review was carried out to establish whether CT scans of the upper cervical spine are necessary in trauma patients with altered mental status and normal plain radiographs. A total of 572 papers were found using the reported search, of which six presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results, and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. A clinical bottom line is stated. (+info)
Conducting stroke research with an exception from the requirement for informed consent.
(16/148)BACKGROUND: Obtaining viable informed consent from stroke patients for participation in clinical trials of acute stroke therapies is often problematic because of patients' neurological deficits. Furthermore, obtaining permission from surrogates is often not possible or not legally permissible. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: In 1996 the Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services published regulations that allow investigators to conduct emergency research without patient consent under a narrowly defined set of circumstances. We review requirements of these regulations, paying particular attention to how they may be applied in a clinical trial of an acute stroke therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stroke researchers should consider conducting clinical trials with an exception from the informed consent requirement permitted by this law. (+info)