Panayiotopoulos syndrome. (49/148)

Panayiotopoulos syndrome is a benign childhood epileptic illness characterized by episodic autonomic symptoms. We present a 9 year old boy with this condition, who presented with episodes of severe vomiting, fever, deviation of eyes and altered sensorium, characteristic EEG in the form of multiple occipital spikes and normal neuroradiologic and metabolic investigations.  (+info)

Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: how conscious is the default mode of brain function? (50/148)

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Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis in an infant associated with the treatment of craniopharyngioma: case report. (51/148)

A 3-year-old girl presented with osmotic demyelination syndrome after undergoing uneventful neuroendoscopic cystostomy for a growing cystic suprasellar craniopharyngioma following microscopic subtotal resection 1 year previously. Endocrinopathy had well been controlled by hormone replacement therapy and administration of 1-amino-8-d-arginine-vasopressin with serum sodium concentration within the normal range. She presented generalized seizure and fever on postoperative day 7, with hyponatremia beginning on postoperative day 4 and deteriorating despite frequent correction. The serum sodium concentration began to fluctuate on the same day, in the range 111-164 mEq/l, which lasted for 2 weeks, refractory for intense management. Her body temperature also fluctuated between hypo- and hyperthermia not correlated with serum inflammatory markers. Her conscious disturbance progressively deteriorated with spastic paraparesis. T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging taken on postoperative day 19 revealed hyperintense areas in the pons, external capsule, bilateral thalami, and basal nuclei, which had not been recognized before, suggesting osmotic demyelination syndrome causing central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. MR imaging taken on postoperative days 230 and 360 showed some diminished lesions but others persisted and resulted in a cavity. The patient's depressed conscious level did not improve. Suprasellar craniopharyngioma with long-standing hypothalamic dysfunction may be associated with severe osmotic demyelination syndrome even after less invasive surgery, so serum sodium derangement after surgery should be promptly corrected even if only subtle signs are present.  (+info)

Prolonged recovery of consciousness in children following symptomatic epileptic seizures. (52/148)

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MR imaging findings of medulla oblongata involvement in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to hypertension. (53/148)

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Hemorrhage from cavernous malformations of the brain: definition and reporting standards. Angioma Alliance Scientific Advisory Board. (54/148)

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Changes in responsiveness when brain injury survivors with impaired consciousness hear different voices. (55/148)

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Dramatic recovery from neurological deficits in a patient with central pontine myelinolysis following severe hyponatremia. (56/148)

A 28-year-old woman developed central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) following severe hyponatremia. Radiological examinations demonstrated a characteristic pontine lesion of CPM. Her neurological symptoms (drowsiness, emotional lability, dysarthria, dysphagia, and quadriparesis) were improved dramatically by treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and rehabilitation. However, results of repeat computed tomographic (CT) scans of the brain remained unchanged. This case therefore suggests that TRH may be beneficial for the treatment of CPM, and that CT findings appear to be a limited prognostic indicator for CPM.  (+info)