Subcutaneous pneumocele associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration into the mechanically occluded colon - case report. (41/148)

A 62-year-old man presented with shunt failure manifesting as consciousness disturbance 4 years after placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Physical examination found subcutaneous pneumocele around the peritoneal catheter extending from the abdomen to the neck. He had undergone pelvic radiation therapy for bladder cancer 2 years before. The peritoneal catheter was removed from the cervical region, and external ventricular drainage and a descending colon stoma for ileus release were positioned. The cerebrospinal fluid was clear and yielded no cultures. No inflammatory changes were seen. He developed carcinomatous peritonitis and died 4 months later. Retrograde colon gas reflux due to catheter perforation into the colon occluded by metastatic sigmoid cancer was probably the cause. Fragility of the wall of colon associated with the prior abdominal radiation therapy might have been a contributing factor. Subcutaneous pneumocele around the peritoneal catheter, i.e. pneumocele within the fibrous sheath surrounding the catheter, is a differential diagnosis to cerebrospinal fluid collection in patients with subcutaneous swelling around the catheter.  (+info)

Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in schizophrenia. (42/148)

BACKGROUND: Studies of visual backward masking have frequently revealed an elevated masking threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-level visual deficit. However, more recent models suggest that masking may also involve late and higher-level integrative processes, while leaving intact early bottom-up visual processing. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the backward-masking deficit in schizophrenia corresponds to a deficit in the late stages of conscious perception, whereas the subliminal processing of masked stimuli is fully preserved. DESIGN: Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia and 28 normal control subjects performed 2 backward-masking experiments. We used Arabic digits as stimuli and varied quasi-continuously the interval with a subsequent mask, thus allowing us to progressively unmask the stimuli. We finely quantified their degree of visibility using objective and subjective measures to evaluate the threshold duration for access to consciousness. We also studied the priming effect caused by the variably masked numbers in a comparison task performed on a subsequently presented and highly visible target number. RESULTS: The threshold delay between the digit and mask necessary for the conscious perception of the masked stimulus was longer in patients compared with controls. This higher consciousness threshold in patients was confirmed by an objective and a subjective measure, and both measures were highly correlated for the patients and controls. However, subliminal priming of masked numbers was effective and identical in patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Access to conscious report of masked stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, whereas fast bottom-up processing of the same stimuli, as assessed by subliminal priming, is preserved. These findings suggest a high-level origin of the masking deficit in schizophrenia, although they leave open for further research its exact relation to previously identified bottom-up visual processing abnormalities.  (+info)

Addendum to "Personal and public safety issues related to arrhythmias that may affect consciousness: implications for regulation and physician recommendations: a medical/scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology": public safety issues in patients with implantable defibrillators: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. (43/148)

OVERVIEW: In 1996, the American Heart Association developed a scientific statement entitled "Personal and Public Safety Issues Related to Arrhythmias That May Affect Consciousness: Implications for Regulation and Physician Recommendations." Since then, multiple trials have established the role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: The issue of driving for patients with ICDs implanted for primary prevention was briefly discussed in the original statement, with the recommendation that such patients not be restricted from driving beyond the initial phase of healing. This scientific statement has been developed to extend the original 1996 recommendations and to provide specific recommendations on driving for individuals with ICDs implanted for primary prevention. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) Patients receiving ICDs for primary prevention should be restricted from driving a private automobile for at least 1 week to allow for recovery from implantation of the defibrillator. Thereafter, these driving privileges should not be restricted in the absence of symptoms potentially related to an arrhythmia. (2) Patients who have received an ICD for primary prevention who subsequently receive an appropriate therapy for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, especially with symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion, should then be considered to be subject to the driving guidelines previously published for patients who received an ICD for secondary prevention. (3) Patients with ICDs for primary prevention must be instructed that impairment of consciousness is a possible future event. (4) These recommendations do not apply to the licensing of commercial drivers.  (+info)

Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. (44/148)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subclinical cerebral edema occurs in many, if not most, children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and may be an indicator of subtle brain injury. Brain ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr), measured by proton MR spectroscopy, decrease with neuronal injury or dysfunction. We hypothesized that brain NAA/Cr ratios may be decreased in children in DKA, indicating subtle neuronal injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DKA underwent cerebral proton MR spectroscopy during DKA treatment (2-12 hours after initiating therapy) and after recovery from the episode (72 hours or more after the initiation of therapy). We measured peak heights of NAA, Cr, and choline (Cho) in 3 locations within the brain: the occipital gray matter, the basal ganglia, and periaqueductal gray matter. These regions were identified in previous studies as areas at greater risk for neurologic injury in DKA-related cerebral edema. We calculated the ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr and compared these ratios during the acute illness and recovery periods. RESULTS: In the basal ganglia, the ratio of NAA/Cr was significantly lower during DKA treatment compared with that after recovery (1.68 +/- 0.24 versus 1.86 +/- 0.28, P<.005). There was a trend toward lower NAA/Cr ratios during DKA treatment in the periaqueductal gray matter (1.66 +/- 0.38 versus 1.91 +/- 0.50, P=.06) and the occipital gray matter (1.97 +/- 0.28 versus 2.13 +/- 0.18, P=.08). In contrast, there were no significant changes in Cho/Cr ratios in any region. CONCLUSIONS: NAA/Cr ratios are decreased in children during DKA and improve after recovery. This finding suggests that during DKA neuronal function or viability or both are compromised and improve after treatment and recovery.  (+info)

Acutely and retrospectively diagnosed perinatal stroke: a population-based study. (45/148)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are not very many epidemiological studies on perinatal stroke, and many authors suggest that this may be an underdiagnosed condition. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of perinatal arterial ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in Estonia, to study the first clinical signs and to identify possible differences in predisposing factors and outcome between acutely and retrospectively diagnosed cases of perinatal stroke. METHODS: A retro- and prospective study of acutely (within the first month) and retrospectively diagnosed ischemic and hemorrhagic cases of perinatal stroke was conducted in a children population born in the eastern and southern regions of Estonia during the years 1994 to 2003. Patients were identified from a pilot study, hospital records, and an inquiry of child neurologists and general practitioners. The diagnosis was confirmed in 38 (12 were diagnosed acutely and 26 retrospectively) cases by neuroradiology (MRI or CT). RESULTS: The incidence rate of perinatal stroke in Estonia is 63 per 100,000 live births. Main clinical findings in the neonatal period were seizures, abnormalities of muscular tone, and disturbed level of alertness. Previously identified risk factors occurred in 32% of cases. Children with early diagnosis had more often adverse events during pregnancy and delivery (P<0.05) and developed more severe stage of hemiparesis compared with children with late diagnosis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of 63 per 100,000 live birth is higher than previously reported. Detailed analysis of the first signs of perinatal stroke may improve the early diagnostics of perinatal stroke.  (+info)

Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale. (46/148)

Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in Sao Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65) was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.  (+info)

Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. (47/148)

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Loss of RAB-3/A in Caenorhabditis elegans and the mouse affects behavioral response to ethanol. (48/148)

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