(1/169) Immunoglobulin VH gene expression among extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the ocular adnexa.
PURPOSE: Most lymphomas of the ocular adnexa are primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the B-cell type, with the most common lymphoma subtype being the extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL). Analysis of somatic mutations in the variable (V) region of the Ig heavy (H)-chain gene segment suggests that EMZL development in other locations is dependent on antigen stimulation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of somatic hypermutations in clonally rearranged Ig H-chain V genes of this lymphoma entity in the ocular adnexa and to estimate whether the mutation pattern is compatible with antigen selection. METHODS: Twenty-six cases of EMZL of the ocular adnexa were diagnosed on the basis of morphology, histology, and immunohistology. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA extracted from paraffin sections. The isolated PCR products were sequenced and compared with published VH germline segments to determine the number of somatic mutations in the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 2 and framework (FW) region 3. RESULTS: The number of somatic mutations in the cases of EMZL varied between 0 and 24: Five cases involved 0 to 3 somatic mutations, and the remaining 21 cases involved 4 to 24 mutations. Based on the ratio of replacement (R) to silent (S) mutations in the CDR2 or FW3 regions, antigen selection seems to have occurred in 60% of ocular adnexal EMZL. The VH3 family was the most commonly expressed germline VH family (54%), followed by VH4 (23%), with biased usage of the latter. Some germline VH1 genes used included DP-8, DP-10, DP-53, DP-63 (VH4.21), and DP-49, which are frequently used by autoantibodies (e.g., rheumatoid factors) and natural autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: EMZLs of the ocular adnexa have an Ig H-chain mutation pattern that supports the concept that they represent a clonal expansion of post-germinal-center memory B-cells in most instances. In two thirds of cases, antigen selection may have occurred, and autoantibodies may have a role in their development. (+info)
(2/169) Intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: analysis of 60 cases.
AIM: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment results, and recurrence rates in patients with either intraepithelial or invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 60 cases (22 conjunctival intraepithelial and 38 invasive squamous cell carcinomas) to determine patterns of clinical presentation, aetiological factors, and treatment results. The mean patient age was 64 years old. 70% of the patients were male. Patients were treated with a variety of therapies, depending on the degree of tumour involvement; most cases were treated with frozen section controlled excision and adjunctive cryotherapy. Modified eye wall resection or enucleation was done for intraocular invasion and exenteration was done for orbital involvement. RESULTS: Red eye (68%) and ocular irritation (57%) were the most common presenting symptoms. 44% of the patients had other eye findings consistent with extensive solar exposure. 20% of the patients had a history of malignant skin tumours. Visceral malignancies developed in 8%. Scleral involvement was present in 14 (37%), intraocular involvement in five (13%), and orbital invasion in four (11%) cases with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. After a mean follow up of 56 months (18-226 months) the rate of new or recurrent tumours was 4.5% for intraepithelial squamous carcinoma and 5.3% for invasive squamous cell carcinoma. No patient developed metastases or tumour related deaths. CONCLUSION: Excision with intraoperative control of the surgical margins and adjunctive cryotherapy results in good tumour control rates. (+info)
(3/169) Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in Tanzania.
AIMS: To assess changes in incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma over a 22 year period in Tanzania and to analyse possible reasons for change. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of records from a Tanzanian pathology department serving north and central Tanzania from 1976 to 1997; medical record analysis of cases of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma presenting in the last 2 years of the study. RESULTS: There was a sharp rise in the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in the last 3 years of the study (1995-7). The mean age of patients presenting with the condition over the full period was 44.7 years (95% confidence interval 42.4-46.9 years). In the final 2 years of the study the mean length of history on presentation was 3.1 months (2.1-4.0 months). Several patients had a previous history of chronic conjunctival disease such as allergic conjunctivitis and trachoma; one had had a conjunctival papilloma excised previously. Only five patients had been tested for HIV status, but of these four were positive. CONCLUSION: Tanzania is experiencing an epidemic of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma similar to that seen in other African countries. Often the tumours are aggressive and occur in patients of relatively young age. The epidemic appears to be related to HIV infection, on a background of ultraviolet light exposure. Previous chronic conjunctival disease and exposure to human papillomavirus may also have a role. (+info)
(4/169) Conjunctival MALT lymphoma: an usual cause of red eye.
We describe a patient presenting with a red eye who was found to have conjunctival non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. (+info)
(5/169) Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with topical 5-fluorouracil.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) alone, without concurrent surgery or radiotherapy, for the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Eight patients affected by conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (three recurrent cases, three incompletely excised, and two untreated cases) were treated with 1% 5-FU eye drops. Topical 1% 5-FU was administered four times daily for 4 weeks (one course). Clinical examination (biomicroscopy and photography) and morphological evaluation of conjunctival cytological specimens were used to monitor the efficacy of local chemotherapy, side effects, and recurrences. RESULTS: All patients showed clinical regression of conjunctival carcinoma after topical 1% 5-FU treatment. Neoplastic conjunctiva was completely replaced by normal epithelium within 3 months. Mean follow up was 27 months. One patient needed two courses of local chemotherapy for recurrent disease. An acute transient toxic keratoconjunctivitis was observed in all treated cases; it was easily controlled with topical therapy. No long term side effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Topical 1% 5-FU is effective in the treatment of recurrent, incompletely excised, and selected untreated conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas. Topical 1% 5-FU has no major complications. This study suggests that topical conjunctival chemotherapy with 1% 5-FU may be useful, at least as adjunctive therapy, in the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
(6/169) Indeterminate melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that a subset of conjunctival melanocytic proliferations exists that cannot be reproducibly classified as benign, malignant, or indeterminate. METHODS: Three groups of excisional biopsy specimens of conjunctival melanocytic proliferations were evaluated by 5 ophthalmic pathologists. These groups included lesions that were considered by the authors to represent benign (Group 1, n = 5), malignant (Group 2, n = 5) and indeterminate melanocytic proliferations (Group 3, n = 5). The panel classified the same sections in all 3 groups in a randomized, masked fashion, first without and then with a clinical history of patient age, sex and race. The kappa statistic (k) was used to quantify the degree of agreement among observers. RESULTS: There was strong concordance among the panel for both Group 1 (benign, k = 0.76) and Group 2 (malignant, k = 0.70) melanocytic proliferations. There was no concordance of the panel for Group 3 (indeterminate) lesions (k = -0.045). The concordance for Groups 1 and 2 and lack of concordance for Group 3 lesions were independent of knowledge of clinical history of age, sex, and race. CONCLUSIONS: A subset of melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva exists that cannot be reproducibly classified by pathologists as benign, malignant, or indeterminate. (+info)
(7/169) Combined nevi of the conjunctiva.
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and histologic features of combined nevi of the conjunctiva, a type of nevus that is not uncommon in the skin but has rarely been reported in the conjunctiva. METHODS: Conjunctival nevi and melanomas from the files of the University of California, San Francisco, eye pathology laboratory were reviewed from 1984 to 1999 for the presence of features of both standard nevocytic nevi and blue nevi. Clinical histories and, when available, clinical photographs were obtained. RESULTS: Thirty-one combined nevi were discovered during the 15-year period between 1984 and 1999. One case before 1984 had been incorrectly diagnosed as a junctional nevus. The dendritic and spindle-shaped blue nevus cells had been overlooked because they were not recognized as distinct from the standard nevocytic nevus cells. The recognition of a blue as well as a brown color, a deep as well as a superficial component in the lesion, or a history of pigmentation since birth may help to establish the correct clinical diagnosis and prevent an unnecessarily deep surgical resection. Although growth of the lesion or "satellites" in some patients may favor a clinical diagnosis of melanoma, none of the lesions in this series were malignant. CONCLUSION: Despite a paucity of reports of combined nevi of the conjunctiva in the medical literature, this type of nevus--a combination of a nevocytic and a blue nevus--is common and has been overlooked in the past. (+info)
(8/169) Evaluation of ocular tumors with technetium-99m-MIBI: planar pinhole technique or SPECT?
OBJECTIVE: This study compares 2 imaging protocols, planar pinhole technique (PPHT) and SPECT, for evaluating ocular masses with 99mTc-MIBI. METHODS: Sixteen patients with ocular lesions were studied. Planar images were acquired 10 min after the injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-MIBI with an LFOV camera fitted with a pinhole collimator (5.0 mm). A SPECT study was performed immediately after the planar study, using a 360 degrees orbit, 64 steps, 20 s/stop, a 128 x 128 matrix, and a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator. Twelve lesions (9.5-18.0 mm) proved to be malignant: 8 primary tumors (ocular melanoma); 3 local relapses of different tumors of the conjunctiva; and 1 ocular metastasis from breast cancer. The remaining 4 lesions (10.0-16.0 mm) were benign: 1 inflammatory lesion; 1 benign intraocular calcification; and 2 naevi. RESULTS: SPECT images showed 11 of 12 malignant lesions (91.6%), whereas the planar technique demonstrated only 4 of the 12 lesions (33.3%). One false-positive result, the inflammatory lesion, was visualized by both techniques. The remaining benign lesions were not detected with either method. CONCLUSION: Technetium-99m-MIBI SPECT is a sensitive technique for detecting malignant ocular tumors. SPECT imaging is a better alternative to planar imaging for ocular tumors. (+info)