(1/1516) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.
CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner. (+info)
(2/1516) Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. METHODS: Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. RESULTS: At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction. (+info)
(3/1516) Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics.
Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control. (+info)
(4/1516) Village-based AIDS prevention in a rural district in Uganda.
OBJECTIVE: To design, implement and evaluate a village-based AIDS prevention programme in a rural district in north-western Uganda. A baseline KAP survey of the general population was carried out to design a district-wide information campaign and condom promotion programme. Eighteen months later the impact achieved was measured through a second KAP survey, using the same methodology. METHODS: Anonymous structured interviews were conducted in March 1991 and October 1992 with 1486 and 1744 randomly selected individuals age 15-49, respectively. RESULTS: At 18 months, 60% of respondents had participated in an information session in the past year (47% women, 71% men) and 42% had received a pamphlet about AIDS (26% women, 58% men). Knowledge about AIDS, high initially (94%), reached 98%. More respondents knew that the incubation period is longer than one year (from 29% to 40%), and were willing to take care of a PWA (from 60% to 77%). Knowledge about condoms increased from 26 to 63% in women and 57 to 91% in men. Ever use of condoms among persons having engaged in casual sex in the past year increased from 6 to 33% in women, and 27 to 48% in men. Fifty per cent of condom users criticized lack of regular access to condoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documented example of the impact a village-based AIDS prevention programme can achieve in a rural African community. Critical areas to be improved were identified, such as: women must be given better access to information, more attention must be paid to explain the asymptomatic state of HIV infection in appropriate terms, and condom social marketing must be developed. (+info)
(5/1516) Using condom data to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS preventive interventions.
The effective evaluation of preventive activities depends on the identification of indicators and the selection of appropriate outcome measures which reflect the goals of the intervention. An increase in condom use has been seen as a positive sign of the impact of HIV/AIDS public education. This paper examines possible sources of data relating to condom use in the context of assessing public response to the AIDS epidemic, with particular reference to methodological challenges presented by each; issues relating to the validity of data, problems of interpretation and the scope for improvement. A multiple indicator approach, using several types of data in unison, is advocated. Conclusions drawn from the multiple indicator approach are likely to be firmer and sounder than those drawn from the single indicator approach, and are more likely to offer insight into the mechanisms which influence particular outcomes. (+info)
(6/1516) Relaying the message of safer sex: condom races for community-based skills training.
This paper describes a community-based HIV prevention program designed to improve confidence in condom use skills by giving community members 'hands-on' experience in using condoms correctly. A condom race activity which had been effective in increasing condom skills confidence among university students in the US was modified and implemented with the general population in rural Northeast Thailand. In addition to providing training in condom use skills, the condom race was part of an integrated condom promotion and distribution campaign which responded to needs identified by the community, built upon the credibility and influence of local leaders and peers, and extended access to condoms into rural communities. Local leaders who had participated in a training-of-trainers program organized condom races in their communities, serving as positive role models for community acceptance of condom use. The condom race stimulated community discussion about condoms and increased participants' feelings of self-efficacy in correct condom use. Participation in the condom race activity was particularly empowering to women, who reported increased confidence in their ability to use condoms and to suggest using condoms with their partners after the race. (+info)
(7/1516) Cost as a barrier to condom use: the evidence for condom subsidies in the United States.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the impact of price on condom use. METHODS: A program based on distribution of condoms at no charge was replaced with one providing low-cost condoms (25 cents). Pretest and posttest surveys asked about condom use among persons reporting 2 or more sex partners. RESULTS: At pretest, 57% of respondents had obtained free condoms, and 77% had used a condom during their most recent sexual encounter. When the price was raised to 25 cents, the respective percentages decreased to 30% and 64%. CONCLUSIONS: Cost is a barrier to condom use. Free condoms should be distributed to encourage their use by persons at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. (+info)
(8/1516) Contraceptive needs of women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic for the first time.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for, and potential uptake of, a contraceptive service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. METHODS: 544 women, median age 17 years (range 13-54) including 142 teenagers, attending the Fife GUM clinics serving a semirural population of 350,000 for the first time in the 12 month period from 1 September 1995 to 31 August 1996 were interviewed. RESULTS: Contraception was required by 353, of whom only 5% (29) were at risk of unplanned pregnancy, although half (15) of these were teenagers. 23 of 29 (79%) stated that they would access contraception at a GUM clinic if it were available. Of women using contraception, 67% (217/324) were taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), of whom 177 obtained supplies from their general practitioners and were happy with this. However, 92/177 (52%) stated that they would access the OCP at GUM clinics if it were available. Overall, of the 243 women who stated that they would access contraception at the GUM clinic, 23 of whom were currently at risk of an unplanned pregnancy, the demand was principally for condoms and the OCP. CONCLUSION: The majority of women attending GUM clinics for the first time are using contraception, or have deliberately chosen not to do so. Only 5% were at risk of unplanned pregnancy. In general, the women using contraception were happy with their current source of contraception, but about two thirds would use a contraceptive service at GUM clinics if it were available at the time they were attending the clinic. It was found that teenagers accounted for half of those women at risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, the majority of teenagers requiring contraception would consider obtaining it from GUM clinics. (+info)