Fatigue of workers is a complex phenomenon resulting from various factors in technically innovated modern industries, and it appears as a feeling of exhaustion, lowering of physiological functions, breakdown of autonomic nervous balance, and decrease in work efficiency. On the other hand industrial fatigue is caused by excessive workload, remarkable alteration in working posture and diurnal and nocturnal rhythms in daily life. Working modes in modern industries have changed from work with the whole body into that with the hands, arms, legs and/or eyes which are parts of the body, and from physical work to mental work. Visual display terminal (VDT) work is one of the most characteristic jobs in the various kinds of workplaces. A large number of fatigue tests have already been adopted, but it is still hard to draw a generalized conclusion as to the method of selecting the most appropriate test battery for a given work load. As apparatus for fatigue measurement of VDT work we have developed VRT (Visual Reaction Test) and the Portable Fatigue Meter. Furthermore, we have presented immune parameters of peripheral blood and splenic T cells for physical fatigue. (+info)
Abnormal tear dynamics and symptoms of eyestrain in operators of visual display terminals.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relation between the prevalence of dry eye syndrome and subjective symptoms of asthenopia in visual display terminal (VDT) operators. METHOD: 722 VDT workers (242 subject workers with symptoms of asthenopia and 480 controls without such symptoms) without obvious organic ocular diseases received an ophthalmological examination consisting of refractometry and a tear function (phenol red thread) test. RESULTS: More than 30% of symptomatic workers were found to meet the criteria of dry eye, and the odds ratio compared with the controls was 4.61 (p < 0.001). This odds ratio was significantly greater than that obtained for refractive errors (2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Although this cross sectional study could not prove that dry eyes are the cause of asthenopia, the profound association of dry eyes with symptoms of asthenopia could be verified. It would be useful to carry out tear function tests in workers with symptoms of asthenopia. (+info)
Image quality degradation by light scattering in display devices.
Veiling glare and ambient light reflection can significantly degrade the quality of an image on a display device. Veiling glare is primarily associated with the diffuse spread of image signal caused by multiple light scattering in the emissive structure of the device. The glare ratio associated with a test image with a 1-cm-diameter black spot is reported as 555 for film, 89 for a monochrome monitor, and 25 for a color monitor. Diffuse light reflection results from ambient light entering the display surface and returning at random emission angles. The diffuse reflection coefficient (luminance/illuminance, 1/sr) is reported as 0.026 for film, 0.058 for a monochrome monitor, and 0.025 for a color monitor with an antireflective surface coating. Both processes increase the luminance in black regions and cause contrast reduction. Specular reflections interfere with detail in the displayed scene. The specular reflection coefficient (luminance/luminance) is reported as 0.011 for film, 0.041 for a monochrome monitor, and 0.021 for a color monitor with an antireflective coating. (+info)
Optimization of a contrast-detail-based method for electronic image display quality evaluation.
The authors previously reported a general technique based on contrast-detail methods to provide an overall quantitative evaluation of electronic image display quality. The figure-of-merit reflecting overall display quality is called maximum threshold contrast or MTC. In this work we have optimized the MTC technique through improvements in both the test images and the figure-of-merit computation. The test images were altered to match the average luminance with that observed for clinical computed radiographic images. The figure-of-merit calculation was altered to allow for contrast-detail data with slopes not equal to -1. Preliminary experiments also were conducted to demonstrate the response of the MTC measurements to increased noise in the displayed image. MTC measurements were obtained from five observers using the improved test images displayed with maximum monitor luminance settings of 30-, 50-, and 70-ft-Lamberts. Similar measurements were obtained from two observers using test images altered by the addition of a low level of image noise. The noise-free MTC and MTC difference measurements exhibited standard deviations of 0.77 and 1.55, respectively. This indicates good measurement precision, comparable or superior to that observed using the earlier MTC technique. No statistically significant image quality differences versus maximum monitor luminance were seen. The noise-added MTC measurements were greater than the noise-free values by an average of 4.08 pixel values, and this difference was statistically significant. This response is qualitatively correct, and is judged to indicate good sensitivity of the MTC measurement to increased noise levels. (+info)
Long-term effects on symptoms by reducing electric fields from visual display units.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to see whether the results of an earlier study [ie, that skin symptoms were reduced by reducing electric fields from visual display units (VDU)] could be reproduced or not. In addition, an attempt was made to determine whether eye symptoms and symptoms from the nervous system could be reduced by reducing VDU electric fields. METHODS: The study was designed as a controlled double-blind intervention. The electric fields were reduced by using electric-conducting screen filters. Forty-two persons completed the study while working at their ordinary job, first 1 week with no filter, then 3 months with an inactive filter and then 3 months with an active filter (or in reverse order). The inactive filters were identical to the active ones, except that their ground cables were replaced by empty plastic insulation. The inactive filters did not reduce the fields from the VDU. The fields were significantly lower with active filters than with inactive filters. RESULTS: Most of the symptoms were statistically significantly less pronounced in the periods with the filters when compared with the period with no filter. This finding can be explained by visual effects and psychological effects. No statistically significant difference in symptom severeness was observed between the period with an inactive filter and the one with an active filter. CONCLUSIONS: The study does not support the hypothesis that skin, eye, or nervous system symptoms can be reduced by reducing VDU electric fields. (+info)
Office equipment and supplies: a modern occupational health concern?
The Helsinki Office Environment Study, a population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Finland in 1991 among 2,678 workers in 41 randomly selected office buildings. The aim was to evaluate the relations between work with office equipment and supplies and the occurrence of eye, nasopharyngeal, skin, and general symptoms (often denoted as sick building syndrome (SBS)), chronic respiratory symptoms, and respiratory infections. Work with self-copying paper was significantly related to weekly work-related eye, nasopharyngeal, and skin symptoms, headache and lethargy, as well as to the occurrence of wheezing, cough, mucus production, sinusitis, and acute bronchitis. Photocopying was related to nasal irritation, and video display terminal work to eye symptoms, headache, and lethargy. (+info)
Active matrix liquid crystal displays for clinical imaging: comparison with cathode ray tube displays.
Fifteen large-area, flat-panel displays used for clinical image review were evaluated for image quality and compared with 30 comparably sized cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors. Measurements were of image display patterns by Video Electronic Standards Association (VESA) and a commercial product. Field measurements were made of: maximum and minimum luminance, ambient lighting, characteristic curve (gamma), point shape and size, high-contrast resolution, uniformity, and distortion. Assessments were made of pixel defects, latent image patterns, ghosting artifacts, and viewing angle luminance. Also, a questionnaire was generated for users of the flat-panel and CRT units. Seventeen respondents indicated no preference for either flat panel or CRT. Results show these flat panels to have higher luminance (mean, 177.7 cd/m2); larger number of just noticeable differences (JNDs; n = 555), higher gamma, comparable uniformity, and warm-up time. CRTs had less angle viewing dependence and far fewer artifacts (ghosting and latent images). Our questionnaire showed active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) to be fully acceptable for clinical image viewing. Furthermore, the statistical results show that further testing for new AMLCDs of this type is unwarranted. (+info)
Contrast-detail characteristic evaluations of several display devices.
The contrast-detail characteristic of a display system is a powerful tool for evaluating displayed image quality. It takes into account the physical properties of the display, the psychophysical aspects of the observer, and the viewing conditions. It is a more sensitive measurement of the displayed image quality than a simple Society of Motion Picture and Television (SMPTE) pattern. Yet, it is relatively simple to measure and requires no special equipment or analysis tools. In this presentation, the results of the evaluation of several cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and a digital projector will be presented. Contrast-detail characteristics of these display devices were measured under various gamma and display settings. The results show excellent intraobserver and interobserver variance (<1 step on the grayscale). Extraneous light, such as room lighting, affects the contrast threshold more severely at low background levels more than at high background. Gamma settings on graphics adapters affect the shapes of the contrast-detail curve for all display types. Gamma settings of approximately 2.0 result in a better contrast threshold for both high and low background brightness. The results show complex differences in contrast-detail characteristics for different display types. The digital projector display not only has significantly worse performance than CRT monitors, but also is affected more by extraneous light. High-brightness monitors with optimal monitor and graphics adapter settings have better performance than color or low-brightness monitors. However, under some settings, the performance of high-brightness monitors is not always better at all object sizes and background levels. (+info)