Image processing strategies in picture archiving and communication systems. (1/1443)

An image processing strategy is presented that assures very similar soft-copy presentation on diagnostic workstations of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) over the lifetime of an image file and simultaneously provides efficient work-flow. The strategy is based on rigid partitioning of image processing into application- and display-device-specific processing. Application-specific processing is optimized for a reference display system. A description of this system is attached to the file header of the application-specifically processed image which is stored in the PACS. Every diagnostic display system automatically reproduces the image quality for which the application-specific processing was optimized by adjusting its properties by display-system-specific processing so that the system becomes effectively equal to the reference display system.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (2/1443)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Imagene: an integrated computer environment for sequence annotation and analysis. (3/1443)

MOTIVATION: To be fully and efficiently exploited, data coming from sequencing projects together with specific sequence analysis tools need to be integrated within reliable data management systems. Systems designed to manage genome data and analysis tend to give a greater importance either to the data storage or to the methodological aspect, but lack a complete integration of both components. RESULTS: This paper presents a co-operative computer environment (called Imagenetrade mark) dedicated to genomic sequence analysis and annotation. Imagene has been developed by using an object-based model. Thanks to this representation, the user can directly manipulate familiar data objects through icons or lists. Imagene also incorporates a solving engine in order to manage analysis tasks. A global task is solved by successive divisions into smaller sub-tasks. During program execution, these sub-tasks are graphically displayed to the user and may be further re-started at any point after task completion. In this sense, Imagene is more transparent to the user than a traditional menu-driven package. Imagene also provides a user interface to display, on the same screen, the results produced by several tasks, together with the capability to annotate these results easily. In its current form, Imagene has been designed particularly for use in microbial sequencing projects. AVAILABILITY: Imagene best runs on SGI (Irix 6.3 or higher) workstations. It is distributed free of charge on a CD-ROM, but requires some Ilog licensed software to run. Some modules also require separate license agreements. Please contact the authors for specific academic conditions and other Unix platforms. CONTACT: imagene home page:  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (4/1443)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

A proposal for a standard CORBA interface for genome maps. (5/1443)

MOTIVATION: The scientific community urgently needs to standardize the exchange of biological data. This is helped by the use of a common protocol and the definition of shared data structures. We have based our standardization work on CORBA, a technology that has become a standard in the past years and allows interoperability between distributed objects. RESULTS: We have defined an IDL specification for genome maps and present it to the scientific community. We have implemented CORBA servers based on this IDL to distribute RHdb and HuGeMap maps. The IDL will co-evolve with the needs of the mapping community. AVAILABILITY: The standard IDL for genome maps is available at http:// l. The IORs to browse maps from Infobiogen and EBI are at and CONTACT: [email protected], [email protected]  (+info)

Computer analysis of qualitative data: the use of ethnograph. (6/1443)

Ethnograph, a code and retrieve software program for computer analysis of qualitative data, was utilized to assist in analyzing the content of in-depth interviews and focus group data. This program requires basic computer hardware and is fairly easy to use. The main advantage of the program is easy access to data dealing with a particular issue and easy retrieval of text for analysis and illustration. However, to get the maximum benefit from this program, documents need to be structured In the format suitable for the software. Among the difficulties encountered were the absence of on-line documents dummy coding, lack of options in printing facility and the tendency for the program to hang whenever there was a printing error.  (+info)

Y2K: the moment of truth. (7/1443)

It remains to be seen whether the world will move in time to fix the Y2K bug, or whether computers around the world will shut down when the clock strikes midnight on 31 December 1999. Y2K could have a serious impact on environmental facilities, particularly given the extent to which computer software and microchips are now involved in pollution control and environmental monitoring and protection systems.  (+info)

Development of the temporal lobe in infants and children: analysis by MR-based volumetry. (8/1443)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent advances in data-processing techniques have allowed more accurate MR-based volumetric measurement than was possible in the past. The purpose of this study was to use this technique to evaluate the development of the temporal lobes in childhood. METHODS: The study group consisted of 42 subjects aged 3 weeks to 14 years (mean age, 5 years), all with normal findings on a routine MR study and none with a history of epilepsy. MR images were acquired on a 1.0-T system using a T1-weighted 3D ultrafast gradient-echo sequence. The volumes of the hippocampal formations and temporal lobes were measured by using a workstation, and the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes was calculated. Myelination in the limbic system and related structures was also evaluated. RESULTS: The volume of the hippocampal formations increased sharply until the age of 2 years, and continued to increase slowly thereafter. However, the percentage of hippocampal formations in the temporal lobes showed a negative correlation with age. The hippocampal formations on the right side were larger than those on the left in 38 cases (91%), and the anterior temporal lobes on the right were larger than those on the left in 32 cases (76%). This right-left asymmetry of the hippocampal formations and anterior temporal lobes was observed from early infancy, and these differences were statistically significant. A longitudinal fasciculus of high signal intensity was seen in the white matter beneath the subiculum by about 3 months of age. CONCLUSION: MR-based volumetry established developmental characteristics of the temporal lobe, such as a hippocampal growth spurt, a growth difference between the hippocampal formation and the rest of the temporal lobe, and right-left asymmetry. Knowledge of these characteristics may aid in the understanding of hippocampal and temporal lobe abnormalities in children.  (+info)