Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load.
Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies. (+info)
Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep.
This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface. (+info)
Effects of magnesia and potassium sulfate on gypsum-bonded alumina dental investment for high-fusing casting.
The purpose of this study was to improve the characteristics of gypsum-bonded alumina investments using magnesia and potassium sulfate as chemical additives. Magnesia content improved fluidity, delayed setting reaction, increased green strength, and decreased setting expansion, when mixed with distilled water. When the investment was mixed with potassium sulfate, the setting time and setting expansion were reduced, and the thermal expansion increased, however, the green strength decreased. Therefore, the investment with a small amount of magnesia mixed with potassium sulfate was considered a suitable composition, having adequate setting behavior, enough green strength and sufficient compensate expansion for casting. (+info)
Marginal adaptation of commercial compomers in dentin cavity.
The dentin cavity adaptation and setting characteristics of four commercial compomers were evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall contraction gap width in the cylindrical dentin cavity and measuring the compressive strength for a maximum of 14 days after setting. The dentin cavity wall was pretreated by the dentin adhesives according to each manufacturer's instructions or the experimental contraction gap-free dentin bonding system. Complete marginal integrity was obtained in only one compomer and two resin composites which were combined with the experimental dentin bonding system. The compressive strength of two resin composites and two compomers ten minutes after setting was comparable to that after 14 days which indicated that the compomers exhibited setting characteristics as rapidly as the resin composite. It was concluded that a high efficacy dentin bonding system is required for commercial compomers to prevent gap formation during irradiation caused by the rapid setting shrinkage. (+info)
The 'instantaneous' compressive modulus of human articular cartilage in joints of the lower limb.
METHODS: The instantaneous compressive modulus of articular cartilage was surveyed in 11 sets of human lower limb joints obtained from the ipsilateral side. The average modulus for the entire joint surface of each joint and the topographical variations in the modulus within each joint were examined for all 11 sets, and subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Within each set of joints (hip, knee and ankle), the ankle always had a significantly greater mean compressive modulus than the hip and knee (P < 0.001-P < 0.05). In seven sets of joints, there was no significant difference between the mean compressive moduli of the knee and hip joints. In three sets of joints, the compressive modulus of the knee was significantly greater than that of the hip (P < 0.001-P < 0.01), while in only one set of joints was the compressive modulus of the hip significantly greater than that of the knee (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The topographical variations in the cartilage instantaneous compressive modulus over the surfaces of the lower limb joints were matched by differences in the stresses occurring in different areas of each joint. The results of the present study corroborate previous findings and show that the site-specific stresses and corresponding values of the instantaneous cartilage compressive modulus over the surfaces of lower limb joints were correlated (r = 0.82 at P < 0.01), thus adding credence to the conditioning hypothesis of cartilage by prevalent stress. (+info)
Maturation-related compressive properties of rabbit knee articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue.
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the physiologic change in cartilage biomechanics, accompanying the structural remodeling of the cartilage bone unit during maturation, may have relevance to understand the development of joint disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturation-dependent changes of compressive properties of articular cartilage and volume fraction of subchondral tissue in healthy rabbit knees. METHODS: Cartilage compressive properties (instantaneous and creep moduli) were tested at seven defined knee joint regions of five young (ten weeks), five adolescent (eighteen weeks) and five adult (above thirty-one weeks) healthy rabbits with in-situ indentation tests. Morphometric analysis of volume fraction of subchondral tissue was carried out at four regions. RESULTS: Cartilage stiffness (instantaneous modulus) decreased between infancy and adolescence (P < 0.009), and stayed then the same. A simultaneous significant change in (50-second) creep modulus was only observed at one region, but both moduli correlated to each other. Subchondral tissue consisted of cancellous bone in the young, and formed a more solid bone plate not before adolescence. Its volume fraction increased from infancy to adolescence (P < 0.001), but stayed then the same. There was a significant inverse correlation between the volume fraction of subchondral tissue and cartilage stiffness at the four measured regions (R2 = -0.59). The arrangement of collagen fiber bundles in the deeper cartilage layers changed from a mesh-like structure in the young to a more perpendicular alignment in the adolescent and adult. CONCLUSION: The maturation-related change in compressive properties coincided with a conspicuous change in volume fraction of the subchondral tissue. The main change appeared around puberty. (+info)
Bone response to orthodontic loading of endosseous implants in the rabbit calvaria: early continuous distalizing forces.
The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of early orthodontic loading on the stability and bone-implant interface of titanium implants in a rabbit model. Twenty-four short threaded titanium fixtures were inserted in the calvarial mid-sagittal suture of 10 rabbits. Two weeks following insertion, 20 implants (test group) were subjected to continuous distalization forces of 150 g for a period of 8 weeks. The remaining four implants (control group) were left unloaded for the same follow-up interval. Clinically, all implants except for one test fixture were stable, and exhibited no mobility or displacement throughout the experimental loading period. Histologically, all stable implants were well-integrated into bone. No differences could be found between the pressure and tension surfaces of the test implants relative to bone quality and density within a range of 1000 microns from the fixture surface. Similarly, qualitative differences were not observed between the apical and coronal portions of test fixtures. Morphometrically, a mean percentage bone-to-implant contact of 76.00 +/- 18.73 per cent was found at the test pressure sides, 75.00 +/- 11.54 per cent at the test tension sides, and 68.00 +/- 15.55 per cent at the control unloaded surfaces. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-metal contact length fraction were found between test pressure surfaces, test tension surfaces, and unloaded control surfaces. Marginal bone resorption around the implant collar or immediately beneath it was found in roughly the same percentage of analysed sites in the test and control fixtures. In contrast, slight bone apposition was demonstrated at the implant collar of the test pressure surfaces, while no apposition or resorption were observed in the test tension zones. This study suggests that short endosseous implants can be used as anchoring units for orthodontic tooth movement early in the post-insertion healing period. (+info)
Softness discrimination with a tool.
The abilities of humans to discriminate the softness of rubber objects of differing compliance with a hand-held tool (a stylus) was measured under experimental conditions that differed as to how the tool was used and the kind of sensory information available. When the subject actively tapped or pressed the compliant objects, they discriminated softness as well by means of a stylus as they did by contacting the objects directly with the fingerpad. Discrimination with the stylus was unaffected by whether the stylus was controlled by one or two fingers. While tapping or pressing a stylus held in a precision grip, the grip force increased before, reached a maximum at the same time as, and decreased in parallel with the compressional force. This relationship was suggestive of anticipatory motor control based on an internal model of the motor system and the physical properties of the object. Discrimination was significantly better when tapping as opposed to pressing the objects with the stylus. This was hypothesized as due to the presence of tactile cues generated by the rapid increase in force rate as the stylus struck and indented the object during tapping. During tapping, the magnitude and rate of compressional force produced by the stylus against the object were greater, the harder the object. An additional cue, possibly kinesthetic, during pressing and tapping was the magnitude of indentation of the specimen by the stylus that was greater, the softer the object. Subjects could discriminate differences on softness by tactile cues alone in the absence of kinesthetic when compliant objects were tapped at approximately the same velocity by the experimenter against a stylus in contact with the subject's passive fingerpad. Discrimination deteriorated if the softer specimen of a pair was tapped with a slightly greater velocity than the harder and not possible if the specimens were pressed against the stylus without generating tactile cues of mechanical contact. In contrast, discrimination was possible during active pressing and unaffected by variations in velocity during active tapping. It is concluded that during active movements, kinesthetic information and knowledge of central efferent commands provide useful cues that are not present during passive touch. These cues allow the observer to discriminate differences in object compliance not confounded by differences in applied velocity. (+info)