(1/554) Complement-mediated injury reversibly disrupts glomerular epithelial cell actin microfilaments and focal adhesions.
BACKGROUND: Foot process effacement and condensation of the glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) cytoskeleton are manifestations of passive Heymann nephritis, a model of complement-mediated membranous nephropathy. METHODS: To study the effects of complement on the actin cytoskeleton in this model, we have used an in vitro system in which GECs are sublethally injured using a combination of complement-fixing anti-Fx1A IgG and human serum as a source of complement. We examined the effects of this injury on the organization of the cytoskeleton and focal contacts using immunohistology and immunochemistry. RESULTS: By immunofluorescence, sublethal complement-mediated injury was accompanied by a loss of actin stress fibers and focal contacts but retention of matrix-associated integrins. Full recovery was seen after 18 hours. Western blot analysis showed no change in the cellular content of the focal contact proteins. Inhibition of the calcium-dependent protease calpain did not prevent injury. In addition, cycloheximide during recovery did not inhibit the reassembly of stress fibers or focal contacts. Injury was associated with a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and a currently unidentified 200 kDa protein, but inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity with sodium vanadate did not prevent injury. Cellular adenosine triphosphate content was significantly reduced in injured cells. CONCLUSION: These results document reversible, complement-dependent disruption of actin microfilaments and focal contacts leading to the dissociation of the cytoskeleton from matrix-attached integrins. This may explain the altered cell-matrix relationship accompanying podocyte effacement in membranous nephropathy. (+info)
(2/554) Complement activation and increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices during infusion of postoperatively drained untreated blood.
In nine healthy young patients, operated on for thoracic scoliosis, a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted for the study of haemodynamic variables and blood sampling during autologous transfusion of postoperatively drained blood. At 1-3 h after wound closure, 10 ml kg/body weight of drained untreated blood from the wound was collected and recirculated over a l-h period. The concentration of the complement activation product, C3bc, increased from a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.5) AU ml-1 before infusion to 11.1 (3.9) AU ml-1 during infusion and then returned to 7.8 (2.8) AU ml-1 after infusion. The concentration of the terminal complement complex (TCC) increased from 0.5 (0.2) to 1.3 (0.5) AU ml-1 and was reduced to 0.7 (0.3) AU ml-1 after infusion. Only TCC exceeded the reference values which are 14 AU ml-1 for C3bc and 1.0 AU ml-1 for TCC. Pulmonary vascular resistance index concomitantly increased from a mean of 130 (SD 52) to 195 (88) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and was reduced to 170 (86) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. Systemic vascular resistance index increased from a mean of 1238 (SD 403) to 1349 (473) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and returned to 1196 (401) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. White blood cell count (WCC) increased from 14.4 (4.3) x 10(9) litre-1 before infusion to 17.8 (7.2) x 10(9) litre-1 during and after infusion. No change in platelet count during infusion was observed. There were no differences in WCC or platelet count between mixed venous or peripheral arterial blood. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance indices may be influenced by activated complement in drained untreated blood when it is recirculated. (+info)
(3/554) Synergistic enhancement of chemokine generation and lung injury by C5a or the membrane attack complex of complement.
Complement plays an important role in many acute inflammatory responses. In the current studies it was demonstrated that, in the presence of either C5a or sublytic forms of the complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC), rat alveolar macrophages costimulated with IgG immune complexes demonstrated synergistic production of C-X-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) and C-C (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant-1) chemokines. In the absence of the costimulus, C5a or MAC did not induce chemokine generation. In in vivo studies, C5a and MAC alone caused limited or no intrapulmonary generation of chemokines, but in the presence of a costimulus (IgG immune complexes) C5a and MAC caused synergistic intrapulmonary generation of C-X-C and C-C chemokines but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Under these conditions increased neutrophil accumulation occurred, as did lung injury. These observations suggest that C5a and MAC function synergistically with a costimulus to enhance chemokine generation and the intensity of the lung inflammatory response. (+info)
(4/554) The terminal sequence of complement plays an essential role in antibody-mediated renal cell apoptosis.
Mesangial cell (MC) injury is a characteristic feature in the early phase of Thy.1 nephritis. The present study investigates the contribution of complement to MC apoptosis in this experimental model of kidney disease in rats. Thy.1 nephritis was induced by injection of mouse anti-Thy.1 monoclonal antibody (ER4G). To assess the contribution of the terminal sequence of complement on apoptosis, the studies were performed in complement-sufficient PVG/c (PVG/c+) rats and in rats deficient in complement C6 (PVG/c-). Apoptosis was monitored by assessment of the number of condensed nuclei in kidney sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expressed as number of apoptotic cells per 50 glomerular cross sections. In the PAS method, 1 h after intravenous injection of ER4G, PVG/c+ rats exhibited 160.9 +/- 49.5 apoptotic cells, whereas PVG/c- rats had only 3.2 +/- 1.4 apoptotic cells. Control rats exhibited 0.9 +/- 0.6 apoptotic cells. These findings were confirmed with the TUNEL method. In PVG/c- rats, a maximum number of 8.8 +/- 3.1 TUNEL-positive (TUNEL+) cells was found at 6 h followed by a decline thereafter. In PVG/c+ rats, apoptosis was associated with deposition of C6 and C5b-9. Restoration of the complement system of PVG/c- rats with purified human C6 resulted in an increase of apoptosis at 1 h after injection of ER4G from minimal numbers to 239.9 +/- 52.4 TUNEL+ cells. These studies appear to indicate for the first time that the terminal sequence of complement is involved in induction of apoptosis. (+info)
(5/554) Evidence for enhanced rates of complement activation in serum from patients with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus exposed to rat islet cells and complement-dependent induction of islet cell apoptosis.
In this paper we report the concentration of terminal complement complexes (TCCs, SC5b-9, an index of complement activation) in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patient serum and normal human serum. In the nine patients studied, levels of serum soluble TCCs were approximately 1.6-fold higher than in sera obtained from normal control individuals. On incubation of rat islet cells with diluted serum (10%, v/v, concentration), complement activation was increased at a significantly faster rate and the total TCC concentration was significantly higher in culture medium containing IDDM patient serum than in medium containing control serum. The concentration of anti-(glutamic acid decarboxylase) autoantibodies in newly diagnosed IDDM patient serum was on average 60-fold higher than in normal human control serum. IDDM patient serum (10%, v/v) induced apoptosis in islet cells, as determined by islet cell density changes and DNA fragmentation patterns. However, serum from IDDM patients was not able to induce apoptosis of the cells when complement components (C1q and C3) or antibodies were depleted. In addition, glutamine and the potent antioxidant 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioic acid partially reversed cell death induced by IDDM patient serum in a concentration-dependent manner. The ATP concentration in islet cells incubated for 24 h in the presence of diluted IDDM patient serum was reduced to 4.4% of that observed in islet cells incubated in fetal calf serum or 7.3% of that observed in islet cells incubated in normal human serum. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that the pathway of IDDM patient serum-induced islet cell apoptosis may involve antibody-dependent complement activation, free radical generation and a precipitous fall in ATP levels. (+info)
(6/554) Complement (C5b-9) induces glomerular epithelial cell DNA synthesis but not proliferation in vitro.
BACKGROUND: The C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is the principal mediator of injury induced experimentally by antibodies directed at glomerular cell membranes. In experimental membranous nephropathy, C5b-9 induced injury to the glomerular visceral epithelial cell (VEC) is associated with DNA synthesis, but not cytokinesis. In the current study we determined if C5b-9 increases DNA synthesis in VEC in vitro, and defined the mechanisms involved. METHODS: Rat VEC in vitro were divided into three groups: (1) sensitized with anti-VEC antibody and exposed to sublytic concentrations of C +/PVG serum (normal complement components); (2) anti-VEC antibody and control C-/PVG serum (C6 deficient); (3) no anti-VEC antibody. DNA synthesis (BrdU staining), mitosis (mitotic figures) and cytokinesis (cell counts) were measured at 24 and 48 hours. To examine the expression of specific S-phase and M-phase cell cycle regulatory proteins and their inhibitors, immunostaining and Western blot analysis was performed for cyclin A, CDK2, p21 and p27, cyclin B and cdc2. RESULTS: In the absence of growth factors, sublytic C5b-9 attack did not increase proliferation. In contrast, sublytic C5b-9 attack (group 1) augmented growth factor induced DNA synthesis by 50% compared to controls (groups 2 and 3; P < 0.001), and was accompanied by increased levels of cyclin A and CDK2, and a decrease in the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 (but not p21). Sublytic C5b-9 attack reduced the expression of the M phase cell cycle proteins, cyclin B and cdc2, accompanied by reduced mitosis (mitotic figures) and cytokinesis (cell number). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the C5b-9 augmented growth factor entry into the S phase in VEC is regulated by changes in specific cell cycle regulatory proteins. However, antibody and complement decreased the M phase cell cycle proteins, and prevented VEC mitosis and cytokinesis, suggesting a delay or arrest at the G2/M phase. (+info)
(7/554) Complement and atherogenesis: binding of CRP to degraded, nonoxidized LDL enhances complement activation.
Complement activation occurs in temporal correlation with the subendothelial deposition of LDL during early atherogenesis, and complement also plays a pathogenetic role in promoting lesion progression. Two lesion components have been identified that may be responsible for complement activation. First, enzymatic degradation of LDL generates a derivative that can spontaneously activate complement, and enzymatically degraded LDL (E-LDL) has been detected in the lesions. Second, C-reactive protein (CRP) colocalizes with complement C5b-9, as evidenced by immunohistological studies of early atherosclerotic lesions, so the possibility exists that this acute phase protein also fulfills a complement-activating function. Here, we report that addition of LDL and CRP to human serum did not result in significant C3 turnover. Addition of E-LDL provoked complement activation, which was markedly enhanced by CRP. Binding of CRP to E-LDL was demonstrated by sucrose flotation experiments. Binding was Ca(2+)-dependent and inhibitable by phosphorylcholine, and the complement-activating property of E-LDL was destroyed by treatment with phospholipase C. These results indicated that CRP binds to phosphorylcholine groups that become exposed in enzymatically degraded LDL particles. Immunohistological studies complemented these findings in showing that CRP colocalizes with E-LDL in early human atherosclerotic lesions. Thus enzymatic, nonoxidative modification of tissue-deposited LDL can be expected to confer CRP-binding capacity onto the molecule. The ensuing enhancement of complement activation may be relevant to the development and progression of the atherosclerotic lesion. (+info)
(8/554) Complement activation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without nephritis.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between disease activity and complement activation prospectively in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one SLE patients were examined monthly for 1 yr. Disease activity, autoantibodies, conventional complement tests and the following complement activation products were investigated: C1rs-C1inh complexes, C4bc, Bb, C3a, C3bc, C5a and the terminal SC5b-9 complement complex (TCC). RESULTS: Modest variation in disease activity was noted. None of the patients had nephritis. Flare was observed at 27 visits. Four patients had anti-C1q antibodies in conjunction with modestly low C1q concentrations. The complement parameters were rather constant during the observation period. Slightly to moderately decreased C4 (0.05-0.10 g/l) was found in 10 patients and severely decreased C4 (<0.05 g/l) in seven patients. Decreased C4 was not associated with increased complement activation. Complement activation products were either normal or slightly elevated. TCC was the only activation product correlating significantly with score for disease activity at flare. None of the variables tested predicted flares. CONCLUSION: Complement tests are of limited importance in routine examination of SLE without nephritis, although TCC is suggested to be one of the most sensitive markers for disease activity. (+info)