Mutations of the type A domain of complement factor B that promote high-affinity C3b-binding.
Factor B is a zymogen that carries the catalytic site of the complement alternative pathway convertases. During C3 convertase assembly, factor B associates with C3b and is cleaved at a single site by factor D. The Ba fragment is released, leaving the active complex, C3bBb. During the course of this process, the protease domain becomes activated. The type A domain of factor B, also part of Bb, is similar in structure to the type A domain of the complement receptor and integrin, CR3. Previously, mutations in the factor B type A domain were described that impair C3b-binding. This report describes "gain of function" mutations obtained by substituting factor B type A domain amino acids with homologous ones derived from the type A domain of CR3. Replacement of the betaA-alpha1 Mg2+ binding loop residue D254 with smaller amino acids, especially glycine, increased hemolytic activity and C3bBb stability. The removal of the oligosaccharide at position 260, near the Mg2+ binding cleft, when combined with the D254G substitution, resulted in increased affinity for C3b and iC3b, a C3b derivative. These findings offer strong evidence for the direct involvement of the type A domain in C3b binding, and are suggestive that steric effects of the D254 sidechain and the N260-linked oligosaccharide may contribute to the regulation of ligand binding. (+info)
Complement activity in middle ear effusions.
Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed. (+info)
Alterations in C3 activation and binding caused by phosphorylation by a casein kinase released from activated human platelets.
A casein kinase released from activated human platelets phosphorylates a number of plasma proteins extracellularly, and that activation of platelets in systemic lupus erythematosus patients parallels an increase in the phosphate content of plasma proteins, including C3. The present study was undertaken to characterize this platelet protein kinase and to further elucidate the effect(s) on C3 function of phosphorylation by platelet casein kinase. The phosphate content of human plasma C3 was increased from 0.15 to 0.60 mol phosphate/mol of C3 after platelet activation in whole blood or platelet-rich plasma. The platelet casein kinase was distinct from other casein kinases in terms of its dependence on cations, inhibition by specific protein kinase inhibitors, and immunological reactivity. C3 that had been phosphorylated with platelet casein kinase was tested for its susceptibility to cleavage by trypsin or the classical and alternative pathway convertases and its binding to EAC and IgG. Phosphorylation did not affect the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b, but the binding of fragments from phosphorylated C3 to EAC14oxy2 cells and to IgG in purified systems and in serum was increased by 1.6-4.5 times over that of unphosphorylated C3. A covariation was seen between the enhanced binding of C3 fragments to IgG after phosphorylation and an increased ratio of glycerol/glycine binding, from 2.0 for unphosphorylated C3 to 4.9 for phosphorylated C3. The present study suggests that an overall effect of phosphorylation of C3 by platelet casein kinase is to enhance the opsonization of immune complexes. (+info)
Pneumococcal surface protein A inhibits complement activation by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a surface-exposed protein virulence factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, no significant depletion of serum complement was observed for the serum of mice infected with pneumococci that express PspA. In contrast, in mice infected with an isogenic strain of pneumococci lacking PspA, significant activation of serum complement was detected within 30 min after infection. Also, the PspA-deficient strain but not the PspA-expressing strain was cleared from the blood within 6 h. The contribution of PspA to pneumococcal virulence was further investigated by using mice deficient for C5, C3, or factor B. In mice deficient for C3 or factor B, PspA-negative pneumococci became fully virulent. In contrast, in C5-deficient mice as in wild-type mice, PspA-deficient pneumococci were avirulent. These in vivo data suggest that, in nonimmune mice infected with pneumococci, PspA interferes with complement-dependent host defense mechanisms mediated by factor B. Immunoblots of pneumococci opsonized in vitro suggested that more C3b was deposited on PspA-negative than on PspA-positive pneumococci. This was observed with and without anticapsular antibody. Furthermore, processing of the alpha chain of C3b was reduced in the presence of PspA. We propose that PspA exerts its virulence function by interfering with deposition of C3b onto pneumococci and/or by inhibiting formation of a fully functional alternative pathway C3 convertase. By blocking recruitment of the alternative pathway, PspA reduces the amount of C3b deposited onto pneumococci, thereby reducing the effectiveness of complement receptor-mediated pathways of clearance. (+info)
Production and functional activity of a recombinant von Willebrand factor-A domain from human complement factor B.
Factor B is a five-domain 90 kDa serine protease proenzyme which is part of the human serum complement system. It binds to other complement proteins C3b and properdin, and is activated by the protease factor D. The fourth domain of factor B is homologous to the type A domain of von Willebrand Factor (vWF-A). A full-length human factor B cDNA clone was used to amplify the region encoding the vWF-A domain (amino acids 229-444 of factor B). A fusion protein expression system was then used to generate it in high yield in Escherichia coli, where thrombin cleavage was used to separate the vWF-A domain from its fusion protein partner. A second vWF-A domain with improved stability and solubility was created using a Cys(267)-->Ser mutation and a four-residue C-terminal extension of the first vWF-A domain. The recombinant domains were investigated by analytical gel filtration, sucrose density centrifugation and analytical ultracentrifugation, in order to show that both domains were monomeric and possessed compact structures that were consistent with known vWF-A crystal structures. This expression system and its characterization permitted the first investigation of the function of the isolated vWF-A domain. It was able to inhibit substantially the binding of (125)I-labelled factor B to immobilized C3b. This demonstrated both the presence of a C3b binding site in this portion of factor B and a ligand-binding property of the vWF-A domain. The site at which factor D cleaves factor B is close to the N-terminus of both recombinant vWF-A domains. Factor D was shown to cleave the vWF-A domain in the presence or absence of C3b, whereas the cleavage of intact factor B under the same conditions occurs only in the presence of C3b. (+info)
Sodium butyrate blocks interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced biosynthesis of MHC class III gene products (complement C4 and factor B) in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells.
Human intestinal epithelial cells have been established as local sites for complement biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-gamma and sodium butyrate on biosynthesis of MHC class III gene products (complement C4 and factor B) in the human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line INT-407. IFN-gamma induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in C4 and factor B secretion. However, sodium butyrate dose-dependently inhibited IFN-gamma-induced C4 and factor B secretion. These effects were also observed at the mRNA level. Immunoblotting indicated that IFN-gamma induced a rapid activation of Stat1alpha, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry detected a translocation of Stat1alpha into the nucleus within 1 h. However, the translocation of Stat1alpha was not affected by the addition of sodium butyrate. Nuclear run-on assay indicated that IFN-gamma induced a weak increase in the transcription rate of factor B gene, and sodium butyrate did not affect this response. IFN-gamma and sodium butyrate induced a counter-regulatory effect on C4 and factor B secretion: IFN-gamma acted as a potent inducer, but sodium butyrate potently abrogated these responses. These are mainly regulated through the post-transcriptional mechanism. (+info)
Counter-regulatory effect of sodium butyrate on tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced complement C3 and factor B biosynthesis in human intestinal epithelial cells.
The various biological activities of butyrate have been well documented. In this study, we tested the effects of butyrate on TNF-alpha-induced complement C3 and factor B biosynthesis in human intestinal epithelial cells. The biosynthesis of C3, factor B and IL-8 was evaluated at the protein and mRNA levels. To evaluate transcriptional activation, the nuclear run-on assay was performed. The transcription factor-DNA binding activity was assessed by an electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA). In the intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29, T84 and Caco-2, sodium butyrate enhanced TNF-alpha-induced C3 secretion, but suppressed TNF-alpha-induced factor B and IL-8 secretion. Nuclear run-on assay revealed that transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are involved in the effects of sodium butyrate. The EMSAs indicated that sodium butyrate suppressed TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB- and activation protein (AP)-1-DNA binding activity, but enhanced TNF-alpha-induced activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)beta (NF-IL-6)-DNA binding activity. Sodium butyrate induced a counter-regulatory effect on TNF-alpha-induced C3 and factor B biosynthesis in human intestinal epithelial cells. Butyrate action has been discussed with its activity to induce histone hyperacetylation, but its counter-regulatory effect on complement biosynthesis may be closely associated with the modulation of transcription factor activation. (+info)
Mutational analysis of the primary substrate specificity pocket of complement factor B. Asp(226) is a major structural determinant for p(1)-Arg binding.
Factor B is a serine protease, which despite its trypsin-like specificity has Asn instead of the typical Asp at the bottom of the S(1) pocket (position 189, chymotrypsinogen numbering). Asp residues are present at positions 187 and 226 and either one could conceivably provide the negative charge for binding the P(1)-Arg of the substrate. Determination of the crystal structure of the factor B serine protease domain has revealed that the side chain of Asp(226) is within the S(1) pocket, whereas Asp(187) is located outside the pocket. To investigate the possible role of these atypical structural features in substrate binding and catalysis, we constructed a panel of mutants of these residues. Replacement of Asp(187) caused moderate (50-60%) decrease in hemolytic activity, compared with wild type factor B, whereas replacement of Asn(189) resulted in more profound reductions (71-95%). Substitutions at these two positions did not significantly affect assembly of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In contrast, elimination of the negative charge from Asp(226) completely abrogated hemolytic activity and also affected formation of the C3 convertase. Kinetic analyses of the hydrolysis of a P(1)-Arg containing thioester by selected mutants confirmed that residue Asp(226) is a primary structural determinant for P(1)-Arg binding and catalysis. (+info)