Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.
The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers and retail shops. The ITNs were sold for US$ 5.0-9.2, with profit margins of 9-16%. Net treatment cost US$ 0.33, with commission fees of 75%. Net transport and treatment were partially subsidized. Some outlets established their own fund by ITN sales. Sales of nets and treatments were seasonal, and certain net types were preferred. Demand for insecticide treatment was generally low. Changes in net coverage were assessed in two villages. A range of outlet features were compared qualitatively. Our experience supports suggestions that ITN technology should be delivered through MCH care services and demonstrates that specific promotion and innovation are necessary to achieve substantial net treatment levels. A large-scale ITN project in the same area and other ITN studies should lead to better understanding of ITN implementation at the population level. (+info)
The Resource Mothers Program for Maternal Phenylketonuria.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of resource mothers in reducing adverse consequences of maternal phenylketonuria. METHODS: Nineteen pregnancies in the resource mothers group were compared with 64 pregnancies in phenylketonuric women without resource mothers. Weeks to metabolic control and offspring outcome were measured. RESULTS: Mean number of weeks to metabolic control was 8.5 (SE = 2.2) in the resource mothers group, as compared with 16.1 (SE = 1.7) in the comparison group. Infants of women in the resource mothers group had larger birth head circumferences and higher developmental quotients. CONCLUSIONS: The resource mothers program described here improves metabolic control in pregnant women with phenylketonuria. (+info)
Linking community-based blood pressure measurement to clinical care: a randomized controlled trial of outreach and tracking by community health workers.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effectiveness of enhanced tracking and follow-up services provided by community health workers in promoting medical follow-up of persons whose elevated blood pressures were detected during blood pressure measurement at urban community sites. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 421 participants received either enhanced or usual referrals to care. Participants were 18 years or older, were either Black or White, and had blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg and income equal to or less than 200% of poverty. The primary outcome measure was completion of a medical follow-up visit within 90 days of referral. RESULTS: The enhanced intervention increased follow-up by 39.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14%, 71%; P = .001) relative to usual care. Follow-up visits were completed by 65.1% of participants in the intervention group, compared with 46.7% of those in the usual-care group. The number needed to treat was 5 clients (95% CI = 3, 13) per additional follow-up visit realized. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced tracking and outreach increased the proportion of persons with elevated blood pressure detected during community measurement who followed up with medical care. (+info)
The Abuela Project: safe cheese workshops to reduce the incidence of Salmonella typhimurium from consumption of raw-milk fresh cheese.
OBJECTIVES: A multiagency intervention was implemented in Yakima County, Wash, to reduce the incidence of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections resulting from eating queso fresco (fresh cheese) made from raw milk, a traditional food in the Hispanic diet. METHODS: A pasteurized-milk queso fresco recipe with taste and texture acceptable to the Hispanic community was developed. Trained Hispanic volunteers conducted safe cheese workshops, which were attended by more than 225 persons. RESULTS: Workshop participants' acceptance of the new recipe was excellent and positive behavior changes were maintained over 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions in Hispanic communities can reduce the incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium associated with eating queso fresco. (+info)
Counseled women's perspectives on their interactions with lay health advisors: a feasibility study.
Although the use of lay health advisors (LHAs) has become a popular intervention in public health promotion projects, few programs have conducted evaluations demonstrating program impact by interviewing people actually counseled by LHAs. This study used semistructured, in-person interviews with 29 older, black women to elicit their perceptions of their interactions with the North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program's LHAs, and the ways in which these interactions affected their mammography attitudes and behavior. Interview data indicate that a majority of the respondents felt that LHAs had helped them in some way; most said that talking to advisors made them think more positively about mammograms and/or consider getting one. LHAs influenced the women they counseled because the women knew the advisors well, felt comfortable talking to advisors about private issues, considered advisors to be credible sources of information about mammography and because advisors offered women support with respect to their mammography behavior. These results elucidate some of the mechanisms through which LHAs affect the attitudes and behavior of individuals in their social networks. (+info)
Differences in program implementation between nurses and paraprofessionals providing home visits during pregnancy and infancy: a randomized trial.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between nurses and paraprofessionals in implementation of a home visiting program for low-income, first-time parents during pregnancy and the first 2 years of the child's life. METHODS: Mothers were randomly assigned to either a nurse-visited (n = 236) or a paraprofessional-visited (n = 244) condition. Nurse- and paraprofessional-visited families were compared on number and length of visits, topics covered, number of program dropouts, and relationship with home visitor. RESULTS: On average, nurses completed more visits than paraprofessionals (28 vs 23; P < .001) and spent a greater proportion of time on physical health issues during pregnancy (38% vs 27%; P < .001) and on parenting issues during infancy (46% vs 32%; P < .001). Paraprofessionals conducted visits that lasted longer and spent a greater proportion of time on environmental health and safety issues (15% vs 7% pregnancy; 15% vs 8% infancy; P < .001). While home visitors were viewed equally positively by mothers, nurses had fewer dropouts than did paraprofessionals (38% vs 48%; P = .04). More paraprofessional-visited families than nurse-visited families experienced staff turnover. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses and paraprofessionals, even when using the same model, provide home visiting services in different ways. (+info)
Decline of mortality in children in rural Gambia: the influence of village-level primary health care.
Using data from a longitudinal study conducted in 40 villages by the UK MRC in the North Bank Division of The Gambia beginning in late 1981, we examined infant and child mortality over a 15-year period for a population of about 17 000 people. Comparisons are drawn between villages with and without PHC. The extra facilities in the PHC villages include: a paid Community Health Nurse for about every 5 villages, a Village Health Worker and a trained Traditional Birth Attendant. Maternal and child health services with a vaccination programme are accessible to residents in both PHC and non-PHC villages. The data indicate that there has been a marked improvement in infant and under-five mortality in both sets of villages. Following the establishment of the PHC system in 1983, infant mortality dropped from 134/1000 in 1982-83 to 69/1000 in 1992-94 in the PHC villages and from 155/1000 to 91/1000 in the non-PHC villages over the same period. Between 1982 and 83 and 1992-94, the death rates for children aged 1-4 fell from 42/1000 to 28/1000 in the PHC villages and from 45/1000 to 38/1000 in the non-PHC villages. Since 1994, when supervision of the PHC system has weakened, infant mortality rates in the PHC villages have risen to 89/1000 in 1994-96. The rates in the non-PHC villages fell to 78/1000 for this period. The under-five mortality rates in both sets of villages have converged to 34/1000 for 1994-96. When the PHC programme was well supported in the 1980s, we saw significantly lower mortality rates for the 1-4-year-olds. These differences disappeared when support for PHC was reduced after 1994. The differential effects on infant mortality are less clear cut. (+info)