Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia. (+info)
Early infection in bone marrow transplantation: quantitative study of clinical factors that affect risk.
Infections remain common life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation. To examine clinical factors that affect infection risk, we retrospectively studied patients who received bone marrow transplants (53 autologous and 51 allogeneic). Over a median of 27 hospital days, 44 patients developed documented infections. Both autologous transplantation and hematopoietic growth factor use were associated with less prolonged neutropenia and decreased occurrence of infection (P < or = .05). In a survival regression model, variables independently associated with infection risk were the log10 of the neutrophil count (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.75), ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19-0.95), empirical intravenous antibiotic use (HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.32), and an interaction between neutrophil count and intravenous antibiotic use (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.06-3.29). In this model, infection risk increases steeply at low neutrophil counts for patients receiving no antibiotic therapy. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and particularly intravenous antibiotic therapy provide substantial protection at low neutrophil counts. These results can be used to model management strategies for transplant recipients. (+info)
A World Wide Web selected bibliography for pediatric infectious diseases.
A pediatric infectious diseases bibliography of selected medical reference citations has been developed and placed on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://www.pedid.uthscsa.edu. A regularly updated bibliography of >2,500 selected literature citations representing general reviews and key articles has been organized under a standard outline for individual infectious diseases and related topics that cover the breadth of pediatric infectious diseases. Citations are categorized by infectious disease or clinical syndrome, and access can be achieved by the disease or by syndrome or the name of the pathogen. Abstracts, and in some cases the complete text of articles, may be viewed by use of hypertext links. The bibliography provides medical students, residents, fellows, and clinicians with a constantly available resource of current literature citations in pediatric infectious diseases. The WWW is an emerging educational and clinical resource for the practice of clinical infectious diseases. (+info)
The effect of antibiotics on mortality from infectious diseases in Sweden and Finland.
A study was carried out to determine whether the preexisting decline in mortality rates from infectious diseases accelerated after the introduction of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs. Linear regression curves showed that in Sweden mortality rates declined faster in septicemia, syphilis, and non-memingococcal meningitis after the introduction of these drugs. By contrast, for the ten other infectious diseases studied, (scarlet fever, erysipelas, acute rheumatic fever, puerperal sepsis, meningococcal infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and acute gastroenteritis) no such accelerated decline in mortality could be detected. The findings suggest that antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs have not had the dramatic effect of the mortality of infectious diseases popularly attributed to them. (+info)
Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases.
The large size and complexity of the human genome have limited the identification and functional characterization of components of the innate immune system that play a critical role in front-line defense against invading microorganisms. However, advances in genome analysis (including the development of comprehensive sets of informative genetic markers, improved physical mapping methods, and novel techniques for transcript identification) have reduced the obstacles to discovery of novel host resistance genes. Study of the genomic organization and content of widely divergent vertebrate species has shown a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation and enables meaningful cross-species comparison and analysis of newly discovered genes. Application of comparative genomics to host resistance will rapidly expand our understanding of human immune defense by facilitating the translation of knowledge acquired through the study of model organisms. We review the rationale and resources for comparative genomic analysis and describe three examples of host resistance genes successfully identified by this approach. (+info)
The validation of interviews for estimating morbidity.
Health interview surveys have been widely used to measure morbidity in developing countries, particularly for infectious diseases. Structured questionnaires using algorithms which derive sign/symptom-based diagnoses seem to be the most reliable but there have been few studies to validate them. The purpose of validation is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of brief algorithms (combinations of signs/symptoms) which can then be used for the rapid assessment of community health problems. Validation requires a comparison with an external standard such as physician or serological diagnoses. There are several potential pitfalls in assessing validity, such as selection bias, differences in populations and the pattern of diseases in study populations compared to the community. Validation studies conducted in the community may overcome bias caused by case selection. Health centre derived estimates can be adjusted and applied to the community with caution. Further study is needed to validate algorithms for important diseases in different cultural settings. Community-based studies need to be conducted, and the utility of derived algorithms for tracking disease frequency explored further. (+info)
Pesticides and immunosuppression: the risks to public health.
There is substantial experimental, epidemiological and other evidence that many pesticides in widespread use around the world are immunosuppressive. This poses a potentially serious health risk in populations highly exposed to infectious and parasitic diseases, subject to malnutrition, and inadequately serve by curative health programmes. An expanded programme of research is needed to investigate this potential risk and to design precautionary measures. (+info)
Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate.
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy. (+info)