Guggulsterone inhibits tumor cell proliferation, induces S-phase arrest, and promotes apoptosis through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, suppression of Akt pathway, and downregulation of antiapoptotic gene products. (9/27)

Guggulsterone is a plant polyphenol traditionally used to treat obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis, possibly through an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Whether this steroid has any role in cancer is not known. In this study, we found that guggulsterone inhibits the proliferation of wide variety of human tumor cell types including leukemia, head and neck carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lung carcinoma, melanoma, breast carcinoma, and ovarian carcinoma. Guggulsterone also inhibited the proliferation of drug-resistant cancer cells (e.g., gleevac-resistant leukemia, dexamethasone-resistant multiple myeloma, and doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells). Guggulsterone suppressed the proliferation of cells through inhibition of DNA synthesis, producing cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and this arrest correlated with a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1 and cdc2 and a concomitant increase in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p27. Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis as indicated by increase in the number of Annexin V- and TUNEL-positive cells, through the downregulation of anti-apoptototic products. The apoptosis induced by guggulsterone was also indicated by the activation of caspase-8, bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage. The apoptotic effects of guggulsterone were preceded by activation of JNK and downregulation of Akt activity. JNK was needed for guggulsterone-induced apoptosis, inasmuch as inhibition of JNK by pharmacological inhibitors or by genetic deletion of MKK4 (activator of JNK) abolished the activity. Overall, our results indicate that guggulsterone can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through the activation of JNK, suppression of Akt, and downregulation of antiapoptotic protein expression.  (+info)

Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. (10/27)

Guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, causes apoptosis in cancer cells but the sequence of events leading to cell death is poorly understood. We now show that guggulsterone-induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI)-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Exposure of PC-3 and LNCaP cells to apoptosis inducing concentrations of guggulsterone resulted in activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in both cell lines and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in LNCaP cells. The guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in PC-3/LNCaP cells was partially but statistically significantly attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition (SP600125) as well as genetic suppression of JNK activation. On the other hand, pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in PC-3 or LNCaP cells (SB202190) and ERK1/2 activation in LNCaP cells (PD98059) did not protect against guggulsterone-induced cell death. The guggulsterone treatment caused generation of ROI in prostate cancer cells but not in a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), which was also resistant to guggulsterone-mediated JNK activation. The guggulsterone-induced JNK activation as well as cell death in prostate cancer cells was significantly attenuated by overexpression of catalase and superoxide dismutase. In addition, guggulsterone treatment resulted in a decrease in protein level and promoter activity of androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the guggulsterone-induced cell death in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by ROI-dependent activation of JNK and guggulsterone inhibits promoter activity of androgen receptor.  (+info)

Hyaluronidase and collagenase inhibitory activities of the herbal formulation Triphala guggulu. (11/27)

Myrrh (guggulu) oleoresin from the Commiphora mukul tree is an important component of antiarthritic drugs in Ayurvedic medicine. Clinical data suggest that elevated levels of hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 enzymes contribute significantly to cartilage degradation. Triphala guggulu (TG) is a guggulu-based formulation used for the treatment of arthritis. We assessed the chondroprotective potential of TG by examining its effects on the activities of pure hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 enzymes. Triphala shodith guggulu (TSG), an intermediate in the production of TG, was also examined. A spectrophotometric method was used to assay Hyaluronidase activity, and to detect potential Hyaluronidase inhibitors. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of TSG showed weak but dose-dependent inhibition of hyaluronidase activity. In contrast, the TG formulation was 50 times more potent than the TSG extract with respect to hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. A validated X-ray film-based assay was used to measure the gelatinase activity of pure collagenase type 2. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of the TG formulation were 4 times more potent than TSG with respect to collagenase inhibitory activity. Components of Triphala were also evaluated for their inhibitory activities on hyaluronidase and collagenase. This is the first report to show that the T2 component of Triphala (T.chebula) is a highly potent hyaluronidase and collagenase inhibitor. Thus, the TG formulation inhibits two major enzymes that can degrade cartilage matrix. Our study provides the first in vitro preclinical evidence of the chondroprotective properties of TG.  (+info)

z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. (12/27)


The guggul for chronic diseases: ancient medicine, modern targets. (13/27)

Identification of active principles and their molecular targets from traditional medicine is an enormous opportunity for modern drug development. Gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn C. mukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma (vitiligo), sinuses, edema and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified as one of the major active components of this gum resin. This steroid has been shown to bind to the farnesoid X receptor and modulate expression of proteins with antiapoptotic (IAP1, XIAP, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP, survivin), cell survival, cell proliferation (cyclin D1, c-Myc), angiogenic, and metastatic (MMP-9, COX-2, VEGF) activities in tumor cells. Guggulsterone mediates gene expression through regulation of various transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, STAT-3 and C/EBPalpha, and various steroid receptors such as androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptors. Modulation of gene expression by guggulsterone leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, suppression of invasion and abrogation of angiogenesis. Evidence has been presented to suggest that guggulsterone can suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis. This review describes the identification of molecular targets of guggulsterone, cellular responses to guggulsterone, and animal studies and clinical trials of guggulsterone in cancer and other diseases.  (+info)

Acute hepatitis caused by a natural lipid-lowering product: when "alternative" medicine is no "alternative" at all. (14/27)


Termite usage associated with antibiotic therapy: enhancement of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity by natural products of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky 1855). (15/27)


Guggulsterone enhances head and neck cancer therapies via inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. (16/27)