Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared.
Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined. (+info)
Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system.
Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system. (+info)
Quantitative study of the variability of hepatic iron concentrations.
BACKGROUND: The hepatic iron concentration (HIC) is widely used in clinical practice and in research; however, data on the variability of HIC among biopsy sites are limited. One aim of the present study was to determine the variability of HIC within both healthy and cirrhotic livers. METHODS: Using colorimetric methods, we determined HIC in multiple large (microtome) and small (biopsy-sized) paraffin-embedded samples in 11 resected livers with end-stage cirrhosis. HIC was also measured in multiple fresh samples taken within 5 mm of each other ("local" samples) and taken at sites 3-5 cm apart ("remote" samples) from six livers with end-stage cirrhosis and two healthy autopsy livers. RESULTS: The within-organ SD of HIC was 13-1553 microg/g (CV, 3.6-55%) for microtome samples and 60-2851 microg/g (CV, 15-73%) for biopsy-sized samples. High variability of HIC was associated with mild to moderate iron overload, because the HIC SD increased with increasing mean HIC (P <0.002). Livers with mean HIC >1000 microg/g exhibited significant biological variability in HIC between sites separated by 3-5 cm (remote sites; P <0.05). The SD was larger for biopsy-sized samples than for microtome samples (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Ideally, multiple hepatic sites would be sampled to obtain a representative mean HIC. (+info)
Nonenzymatic reduction of benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxides to trihydroxypentahydrobenzo(a)pyrenes by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
The diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene is a potent mutagen and possibly the ultimate carcinogenic form of benzo(a)pyrene. A (7/8,9)-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10,10-pentahydrobenzo(a)pyrene is formed from the diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxybenzo(a)pyrene by reduction with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Its formation is linear with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration and does not require the presence of enzyme. A (7,9/8)-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10,10-pentahydrobenzo(a)pyrene is similarly formed from the diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-c-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene by reduction with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. The structures of the trihydroxypentahydrobenzo(a)pyrenes were established by their ultraviolet absorption and mass spectra and their reaction with potassium triacetylosmate. (+info)
Stable thiobarbituric acid chromophore with dimethyl sulphoxide. Application to sialic acid assay in analytical de-O-acetylation.
With dimethyl sulphoxide instead of butanol in the thiobarbituric acid assay for sialic acid, a non-fading chromophore with lambdamax. = 549 nm was produced in a homogeneous solution, allowing dilution of the test mixture in case of high colour yield. This test adapted well to studies on alkaline de-O-acetylation. Bovine and rat submaxillary mucins, and rabbit Tamm-Horsfall urinary sialoproteins contain O-acetyl isomers of neuramine acid that are resistant to the thiobarbituric acid assay. Alkaline de-O-acetylation converted resistant O-acetylneuraminic acid into thiobarbituric acid-reactive sialic acid, and such conversion paralleled de-O-acetylation as measured by the ferric hydroxamate method. The colour increment was similar when the alkaline treatment of bovine submaxillary mucin either preceded or followed the acid hydrolysis. Only alkaline preptreatment was effective with rat submaxillary mucin. By selecting optimal conditions for alkaline de-O-acetylation, O-acetyl isomers can be accurately assessed by the thiobarbituric acid assay. (+info)
A colorimetric technique for detecting trichothecenes and assessing relative potencies.
We tested a novel colorimetric toxicity test, based on inhibition of beta-galactosidase activity in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, for sensitivity to a range of mycotoxins. A variety of trichothecene mycotoxins could be detected. The order of toxicity established with this bioassay was verrucarin A > roridin A > T-2 toxin > diacetoxyscirpenol > HT-2 toxin > acetyl T-2 toxin > neosolaniol > fusarenon X > T-2 triol > scirpentriol > nivalenol > deoxynivalenol > T-2 tetraol. The sensitivity of detection was high, with the most potent trichothecene tested, verrucarin A, having a 50% effective concentration (concentration of toxin causing 50% inhibition) of 2 ng/ml. Other mycotoxins (cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, tenuazonic acid, and zearalenone) could not be detected at up to 10 micrograms/ml, nor could aflatoxins B1 and M1 be detected at concentrations up to 25 micrograms/ml. This test should be useful for trichothecene detection and for studies of relevant interactions-both between trichothecenes themselves and between trichothecenes and other food constituents. (+info)
The association between occupational lead exposure and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to clarify the possible associations between blood lead level and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. METHODS: Levels of blood lead, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in 56 male industrial employees who were exposed to lead were compared with those in 87 unexposed employees. RESULTS: Mean blood lead levels were 42.3 (+/- 14.9) micrograms/dL in the exposed group and 2.7 (+/- 3.6) micrograms/dL in the nonexposed group. The exposed subjects had higher mean levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Blood lead levels are positively associated with total and HDL cholesterol. (+info)
The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay is a fast and reliable method for colorimetric determination of fungal cell densities.
The entomopathogenic fungus Neozygites parvispora (Entomophthorales: Zygomycetes) grows in vitro as irregularly rod-shaped hyphal bodies in a complex medium. In order to simplify the medium composition and determine growth-promoting compounds for the cultivation of this fungus, we were looking for a rapid and quantitative method to estimate the number of living cells in small volumes of liquid culture. A colorimetric method for the determination of cell densities using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] proved to be more accurate and timesaving than conventional hemocytometer counting. (+info)