Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of tickborne diseases in the United States.
Signs and symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract and liver may provide important clues for the diagnosis of various tickborne diseases prevalent in different geographic areas of the United States. We review clinical and laboratory features that may be helpful in detecting a tickborne infection. Physicians evaluating patients who live in or travel to areas where tickborne diseases are endemic and who present with an acute febrile illness and gastrointestinal manifestations should maintain a high index of suspicion for one of these disease entities, particularly if the patient has received a tick bite. If detected early, many of these potentially serious illnesses can be easily and effectively treated, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and even death. (+info)
Recombinant VP7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Colorado tick fever virus.
VP6, VP7, VP9, VP10, VP11, and VP12 of Colorado tick fever virus (CTF virus), a virus member of the genus Coltivirus, family Reoviridae, were expressed in bacteria with the pGEX-4T-2 vector. A partial sequence of VP7 (designated pVP7) was chosen to elaborate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-CTF virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in humans. This was based on two observations: (i) among all expressed proteins, pVP7 showed the highest immunoreactivity to an anti-CTF virus hyperimmune ascitic fluid; (ii) to provide the highest selectivity of antibody detection, the expressed sequence was chosen within a region which is highly divergent (49% amino acid identity) from the homologous sequence of another coltivirus, the Eyach virus. The pVP7 ELISA was evaluated with 368 serum samples from French blood donors and found to provide 98.1% specificity. Assays with the Calisher set of human serum samples, positive for anti-CTF virus antibodies (C. H. Calisher, J. D. Poland, S. B. Calisher, and L. A Warmoth, J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:84-88, 1985), showed that the pVP7 ELISA provided 100% sensitivity for the tested population. After elaboration of recombinant-protein-based ELISAs for diagnosis of infections with members of the viral genera Orbivirus, Orthoreovirus, and Rotavirus, it was shown that a recombinant protein could be used to detect antibodies to the human pathogen Colorado tick fever virus. (+info)
Diagnosis of Colorado tick fever virus infection by enzyme immunoassays for immunoglobulin M and G antibodies.
An immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme immunoassay technique was adapted for the detection of antibody to Colorado tick fever virus in sera from 84 individuals for whom diagnosis had been confirmed by virus isolation or neutralization test. Titers were compared with those for IgG and neutralizing antibodies in these Colorado tick fever cases. IgM antibody titers were higher than neutralizing antibody titers, but neither appeared until 1 to 2 weeks after the onset of illness. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier than IgM antibodies, and both were detected with greater frequency than IgG antibodies. Late-convalescent-phase sera contained both neutralizing and IgG antibodies, but IgM was all but undetectable by 2 months after onset. Although the neutralization test may remain the serological test of choice, the enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibody offers a simple and more rapid method of serodiagnosis; the enzyme immunoassay is, however, less sensitive than the neutralization test. Furthermore, because there was a sharp decline in IgM antibody after 45 days, the presence of IgM antibody in a single serum sample provides a basis for the presumptive serodiagnosis of recent Colorado tick fever virus infection. (+info)
Selective decrease in interferon production in immunotolerant mice.
Mice, immunologically unresponsive to Newcastle disease virus, were impaired in their capacity to produce interferon when induced with Newcastle disease virus, but not when induced with an unrelated virus. (+info)
Arbovirus infections in man in British Columbia.
During the summer of 1971, the first laboratory-proved cases of acute encephalitis in man due to any of the known arboviruses occurred in the south-central region of British Columbia. Five human cases of encephalitis with two deaths were diagnosed; three of these patients, including one of the fatalities, were proven in the laboratory to have contracted western equine encephalitis.During 1968 and 1969, a human serum survey undertaken in approximately 2000 life-long residents of the province discovered low levels of hemagglutinin-inhibiting and/or complement-fixing as well as neutralizing antibodies for western equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Powassan encephalitis, California encephalitis and Colorado tick fever. Evidence of recent sub-clinical infection was detected in some cases. (+info)
Colorado tick fever virus: growth in a mosquito cell line.
Two strains of Colorado tick fever virus grew in Singh's Aedes albopictus cells. In one of three experiments, virus growth continued for 7 weeks. (+info)
Detection of Colorado tick fever virus by using reverse transcriptase PCR and application of the technique in laboratory diagnosis.
Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus elicits an acute illness in humans, producing nonspecific flu-like symptoms and a biphasic fever in approximately 50% of patients. The disease is transmitted by the adult Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and therefore incidence is limited by the habitat and life cycle of that vector. The early symptoms of infection are difficult to distinguish from those of several other agents, especially Rickettsia rickettsii. Serologic testing is usually unable to provide evidence of CTF viral infection during the acute phase because of the late appearance of the various antibodies. Here we report the development and clinical application of a test to diagnose this disease during the acute stages. Oligonucleotide primers to the S2 segment of CTF (Florio) virus were made, and these were used in the amplification of a 528-bp fragment of DNA, transcribed from the double-stranded CTF virus RNA template by reverse transcriptase PCR. RNAs processed from 16 CTF virus isolates yielded similar results when analyzed on agarose gels. These were distinguishable from their antigenic relatives Eyach, S6-14-03, and T5-2092 and from other coltiviruses and an orbivirus but not from the antigenically distinct CTF virus-related isolate 720896. A mouse model demonstrated the utility of this method with whole-blood specimens, and CTF virus was successfully detected in human sera from the initial day of the onset of symptoms to 8 days later. The reverse transcriptase PCR method is a promising tool for the early diagnosis of CTF viral infection, or for ruling out CTF virus as the etiologic agent, in order to facilitate appropriate medical support. (+info)
Serologic and molecular diagnosis of Colorado tick fever viral infections.
Molecular and serologic methods usable for the biological diagnosis of Coltivirus infection are reported. We designed a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction system that allowed the simultaneous and specific amplification of three genomic segments from as little as 0.01 plaque-forming units. Another system in the S2 viral segment permitted the differential diagnosis of American and European viral isolates. We also discuss some improvements of previous ELISAs, and the results obtained with paired sera from Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus-infected individuals. Western blot analysis was developed that allowed the detection of antibodies to a 38-kD viral protein in all tested sera. It also enabled the detection of anti-CTF virus antibodies in ELISA-negative sera. Specific IgM antibodies against a synthetic viral peptide could be detected in sera at the acute stage of the infection. Together, these results should permit the diagnosis of Coltivirus infection at any stage of the pathology. (+info)