Blastomycosis acquired occupationally during prairie dog relocation--Colorado, 1998.
On August 31, 1998, two suspected cases of fungal pneumonia were reported to the Boulder County (Colorado) Health Department (BCHD). Both patients were immunocompetent, otherwise healthy adults working for the City of Boulder Open Space (CBOS) program on a prairie dog relocation project. This report summarizes the epidemiologic investigation by BCHD, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and CDC; the findings indicate that these two persons acquired blastomycosis in Colorado, which is outside the area where the disease is endemic. (+info)
Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado.
A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV. (+info)
A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year. (+info)
Back pain among persons working on small or family farms--eight Colorado counties, 1993-1996.
In the United States, work-related back pain often results in lost wages, reduced productivity, and increased medical costs. However, national surveillance data about these injuries, such as occupationally acquired back pain among workers on small or family farms, are limited. To characterize back pain in a farming population, researchers at Colorado State University interviewed adult farmers residing in eight northeastern Colorado counties (Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Phillips, Sedgewick, Washington, Weld, and Yuma) during 1993-1996, using the Colorado Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey (CFFHHS). This report summarizes the findings of CFFHHS, which indicate that back pain is common among farmers and most frequently attributed to repeated activities (RAs) (e.g. lifting, pushing, pulling, bending, twisting, and reaching). (+info)
Performance of beef cows receiving cull beans, sunflower meal, and canola meal as protein supplements while grazing native winter range in Eastern Colorado.
A 2-yr grazing performance study was conducted in Eastern Colorado to evaluate the effects of feeding raw cull beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or canola meal, compared to sunflower meal, to beef cows grazing dormant, native winter range on body weight and body condition score (BCS) change, reproductive performance, and calf performance. Ninety-five pregnant, spring-calving crossbred cows (541 +/- 51 kg) in 1995 to 1996 and 65 cows (602 +/- 60 kg) in 1996 to 1997 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments (19 and 13 cows per treatment in 1995 to 1996 and 1996 to 1997, respectively): 1) unprocessed Great Northern beans to supply 182 g/d of CP (GNB); 2) canola meal to supply 182 g/d of CP (CM); 3) a mixture of Great Northern beans and sunflower meal, each to supply 91 g/d of CP, for a total of 182 g/d of CP (MIX); 4) sunflower meal to supply 182 g/d of CP (SFM+); and 5) sunflower meal to supply 91 g/d of CP (SFM-). Cow weight and body condition performance were broken into a gestation and a lactation phase in 1995 to 1996; calves were weighed at birth, at the end of the lactation phase in April, and at weaning the following September. Only gestation performance was monitored in 1996 to 1997, and subsequent calf birth and weaning weight were recorded. The SFM- group lost more weight during the gestation phase than other treatments (P < .05), yet no differences were detected for gestation phase daily BCS change, calf birth weight, lactation phase daily weight change, lactation phase daily BCS change, first-service conception rate to AI, or overall pregnancy rate. Off-test calf weight was higher in April for calves from dams of the SFM+ and CM treatments than for calves from dams on the GNB or SFM- treatments (P < .05), and calves from cows on the CM treatment were heavier in April than calves from cows on the MIX treatment (P < .05). No differences in calf weight were present at weaning. Consumption of beans by cows on the GNB treatment was low because of palatability problems. Mixing the beans with sunflower meal in the MIX treatment eliminated this problem. Canola meal, Great Northern beans, or a combination of sunflower meal and Great Northern beans were comparable to sunflower meal as protein supplements for beef cows grazing native winter range, despite obvious palatability problems with the beans. (+info)
PCR detection of Yersinia pestis in fleas: comparison with mouse inoculation.
The "gold standard" for identifying Yersinia pestis-infected fleas has been inoculation of mice with pooled flea material. Inoculated mice are monitored for 21 days, and those that die are further analyzed for Y. pestis infection by fluorescent-antibody assay and/or culture. PCR may provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative for identifying Y. pestis in fleas. To compare these assays, samples were prepared from 381 field-collected fleas. Each flea was analyzed individually by both PCR and mouse inoculation. Sixty of the 381 flea samples were positive for Y. pestis by PCR; 48 of these PCR-positive samples caused death in mice (80.0% agreement). None of the 321 PCR-negative samples caused death. Among the 12 mice that survived inoculation with PCR-positive samples, 10 were later demonstrated by serology or culture to have been infected with Y. pestis. This suggests that death of inoculated mice is less reliable than PCR as an indicator of the presence of Y. pestis in flea samples. Mouse inoculation assays produce results that are comparable to PCR only when surviving as well as dead mice are analyzed for infection. The rapidity and sensitivity (10 to 100 CFU of Y. pestis) of PCR suggest that it could serve as a useful alternative to mouse inoculation for routine plague surveillance and outbreak investigations. (+info)
Risk for rabies transmission from encounters with bats, Colorado, 1977-1996.
To assess the risk for rabies transmission to humans by bats, we analyzed the prevalence of rabies in bats that encountered humans from 1977 to 1996 and characterized the bat-human encounters. Rabies was diagnosed in 685 (15%) of 4,470 bats tested. The prevalence of rabies in bats that bit humans was 2.1 times higher than in bats that did not bite humans. At least a third of the encounters were preventable. (+info)
Population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of Colorado Borrelia burgdorferi.
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted in an enzootic cycle in Colorado between the tick Ixodes spinipalpis and the woodrat Neotoma mexicana. The genetic relationship of Colorado isolates to other B. burgdorferi isolates is unknown nor have relationships among various Colorado isolates been determined. Portions of the flagellin (fla), 66-kD protein, and outer surface protein A (ospA) genes were amplified from 71 Colorado isolates, screened for genetic variability using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and unique alleles were sequenced. Colorado isolates were most similar to tick isolates from California and New York isolate 25015. Genetic distances among Colorado ospA sequences were the same or higher than distances among other isolates whereas distances among fla sequences tended to be the same or lower. The index of association (I(A)) was calculated among all loci as a measure of clonality. The I(A) among Colorado isolates was similar to I(A) previously estimated among other United States isolates. (+info)