A new variable stiffness colonoscope makes colonoscopy easier: a randomised controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy remains technically difficult in 10-20% of procedures due to variable colonic anatomy and fixation. The ability to vary endoscope shaft flexibility may help insertion to the caecum. METHODS: Consecutive patients attending for day case colonoscopy were randomised to examination with either the conventional Olympus CF200HL (200HL) or a new variable stiffness (VS) colonoscope. Intubation time, use of stiffening function, and patient pain scores were compared. RESULTS: Of 100 cases, 43 were performed with the 200HL and 57 with the VS. Four incomplete examinations occurred with the 200HL (two sigmoid fixations, two benign strictures) and two with the VS (one obstructing cancer, one fixed sigmoid). Changing to the paediatric scope was successful in all but one patient from each group (obstructive lesions). Stiff mode was applied 23 times in 18 patients and was effective in 15 of these. Intubation time was quicker with the VS (median 6 minutes 32 seconds) than with the 200HL (median 10 minutes 35 seconds) (p = 0.0005). Pain scores were less with the VS (median 7) than with the 200HL (median 24) (p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: The variable stiffness colonoscope combines paediatric shaft characteristics with the ability to stiffen when needed. This instrument significantly reduces intubation time and patient discomfort. Further comparisons should be made with the newest colonoscopes which are less stiff. (+info)
Quality control in colorectal cancer screening: systematic microbiological investigation of endoscopes used in the NORCCAP (Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention) trial.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is currently implemented in many countries. Since endoscopes cannot be sterilised, the transmission of infectious agents through endoscopes has been a matter of concern. We report on a continuous quality control programme in a large-scale randomised controlled trial on flexible sigmoidoscopy screening of an average-risk population. Continuously, throughout a two-year screening period, series of microbiological samples were taken from cleaned ready-to-use endoscopes and cultured for bacterial growth. RESULTS: 8573 endoscopies were performed during the trial period. Altogether, 178 microbiological samples (2%) were taken from the biopsy channels and surfaces from the endoscopes. One sample (0.5%) showed faecal contamination (Enterobacter cloacae), and 25 samples (14%) showed growth of environmental bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Growth of bacteria occurs in a clinical significant number of samples from ready-to-use endoscopes. Pathogenic bacteria, however, were found only in one sample. Improvement of equipment design and cleaning procedures are desirable and continuous microbiological surveillance of endoscopes used in CRC screening is recommended. (+info)
In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy.
BACKGROUND: Mouse models of colitis and cancer are indispensable for our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the past, mice had to be sacrificed in order to analyse colitis activity and tumour development. We have developed a safe method for high resolution endoscopic monitoring of living mice. METHODS: Mice developing colitis or colonic tumours were anaesthetised using avertine and repeatedly examined by endoscopy. A novel miniendoscope (1.9 mm outer diameter), denoted Coloview, was introduced via the anus and the colon was carefully insufflated with an air pump before analysis of the colonic mucosa. An extra working channel allowed the introduction of biopsy forceps or injection needles as well as surface staining with methylene blue in order to visualise the surface of the crypts and the pit pattern architecture. RESULTS: Endoscopic pictures obtained were of high quality and allowed monitoring and grading of disease. Scoring of colitis activity as well as tumour size and growth was possible. In addition, pit pattern analysis using chromoendoscopy permitted discrimination between inflammatory and neoplastic changes. Biopsies yielded enough tissue for molecular and histopathological analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, chromoendoscopy in mice allows monitoring of the development of colitis and colon cancer with high resolution. Manipulations such as local injection of reagents or taking biopsies can be performed easily. (+info)
Withdrawing method of the stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the descending colon.
We experienced a very rare complication of colonoscopy, a migration of stiffening tube into the colorectum. We herein introduce a withdrawing method of migrating stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the colorectum. A 65-year-old Japanese woman underwent colonoscopy because of abdominal discomfort. We used stiffening tube to insert the scope to the proximal colon because of her redundant sigmoid colon. When withdrawing the scope, we realized that the tube was fully inside the colorectum. We could not remove the tube instantly, and it reached the splenic flexure, finally. We reinserted the scope through the migrating tube, straightened the scope, and withdrew it holding a slight angle of the scope over the proximal end of the tube. Then, we could safely remove the tube along with the scope through the anus. (+info)
Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury.
BACKGROUND: Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. METHODS: Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. RESULTS: The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. CONCLUSIONS: DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI. (+info)
Colorectal tumors with complete obstruction--endoscopic recovery of passage replacing emergency surgery? A report of two cases.
BACKGROUND: Incomplete or complete obstructive ileus due to colorectal cancer is generally treated by emergency surgery that has higher morbidity and mortality than elective surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe an endoscopic technique by which a safe bowel decompression was performed instead of emergency surgery in two patients with complete tumorous obstruction of the colon. By means of a polypectomy snare, a soft wire, an ERCP catheter, a set of endoscopes with different diameters (baby endoscope, gastroscope) and of argon plasma coagulation the tumor mass was reduced and the tumor stenosis was passed. The patients recovered from symptoms of colon obstruction, no procedure-associated complications were observed. One patient had surgery of the sigmoid tumor one week later (UICC-stage III), the other patient (UICC-stage IV) received systemic chemotherapy starting one week after endoscopic decompression. CONCLUSION: Complete tumorous obstruction of the colon may be managed by endoscopic tumor debulking avoiding high risk emergency surgery and allowing immediate medical treatment of the primary tumor and of metastases. (+info)
Magnifying chromoscopy, a novel and useful technique for colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by exacerbations and remissions. The degree of inflammation as assessed by conventional colonoscopy is a reliable parameter of disease activity. However, even when conventional colonoscopy suggests remission and normal mucosal findings, microscopic abnormalities may persist, and relapse may occur later. Patients with long-standing, extensive ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer is characterized by an early age at onset, poorly differentiated tumor cells, mucinous carcinoma, and multiple lesions. Early detection of dysplasia and colitic cancer is thus a prerequisite for survival. A relatively new method, magnifying chromoscopy, is thought to be useful for the early detection and diagnosis of dysplasia and colitic cancer, as well as the prediction of relapse. (+info)
Small caliber overtube-assisted colonoscopy.
AIM: To combine the benefits of a new thin flexible scope with elimination of excessive looping through the use of an overtube. METHODS: Three separate retrospective series. Series 1: 25 consecutive male patients undergoing unsedated colonoscopy using the new device at a Veteran's hospital in the United States. Series 2: 75 male patients undergoing routine colonoscopy using an adult colonoscope, pediatric colonoscope, or the new device. Series 3: 35 patients who had incomplete colonoscopies using standard instruments. RESULTS: Complete colonoscopy was achieved in all 25 patients in the unsedated series with a median cecal intubation time of 6 min and a median maximal pain score of 3 on a 0-10 scale. In the 75 routine cases, there was significantly less pain with the thin scope compared to standard adult and pediatric colonoscopes. Of the 35 patients in the previously incomplete colonoscopy series, 33 were completed with the new system. CONCLUSION: Small caliber overtube-assisted colonoscopy is less painful than colonoscopy with standard adult and pediatric colonoscopes. Male patients could undergo unsedated colonoscopy with the new system with relatively little pain. The new device is also useful for most patients in whom colonoscopy cannot be completed with standard instruments. (+info)