Two constituents of the initiation complex of the mannan-binding lectin activation pathway of complement are encoded by a single structural gene.
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) forms a multimolecular complex with at least two MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2. This complex initiates the MBL pathway of complement activation by binding to carbohydrate structures present on bacteria, yeast, and viruses. MASP-1 and MASP-2 are composed of modular structural motifs similar to those of the C1q-associated serine proteases C1r and C1s. Another protein of 19 kDa with the same N-terminal sequence as the 76-kDa MASP-2 protein is consistently detected as part of the MBL/MASP complex. In this study, we present the primary structure of this novel MBL-associated plasma protein of 19 kDa, MAp19, and demonstrate that MAp19 and MASP-2 are encoded by two different mRNA species generated by alternative splicing/polyadenylation from one structural gene. (+info
C1qRP is a heavily O-glycosylated cell surface protein involved in the regulation of phagocytic activity.
C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) interact with human monocytes and macrophages, resulting in the enhancement of phagocytosis of suboptimally opsonized targets. mAbs that recognize a cell surface molecule of 126,000 Mr, designated C1qRP, have been shown to inhibit C1q- and MBL-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. Similar inhibition of the SPA-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis by these mAbs now suggests that C1qRP is a common component of a receptor for these macromolecules. Ligation of human monocytes with immobilized R3, a IgM mAb recognizing C1qRP, also triggers enhanced phagocytic capacity of these cells in the absence of ligand, verifying the direct involvement of this polypeptide in the regulation of phagocytosis. While the cDNA for C1qRP encodes a 631 amino acid membrane protein, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cDNA of the C1qRP coding region express a surface glycoprotein with the identical 126,000 Mr in SDS-PAGE as the native C1qRP. Use of glycosylation inhibitors, cleavage of the mature C1qRP with specific glycosidases, and in vitro translation of C1qRP cDNA demonstrated that both posttranslational glycosylation and the nature of the amino acid sequence of the protein contribute to the difference between its predicted m.w. and its migration on SDS-PAGE. These results verify that the cDNA cloned codes for the mature C1qRP, that C1qRP contains a relatively high degree of O-linked glycoslyation, and that C1qRP cross-linked directly by monoclonal anti-C1qRP or engaged as a result of cell surface ligation of SPA, as well as C1q and MBL, enhances phagocytosis. (+info
KM+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia: amino acid sequence, predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition, and analysis of the beta-prism fold.
The complete amino acid sequence of the lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit), which contains 149 residues/mol, is reported and compared to those of other members of the Moraceae family, particularly that of jacalin, also from jackfruit, with which it shares 52% sequence identity. KM+ presents an acetyl-blocked N-terminus and is not posttranslationally modified by proteolytic cleavage as is the case for jacalin. Rather, it possesses a short, glycine-rich linker that unites the regions homologous to the alpha- and beta-chains of jacalin. The results of homology modeling implicate the linker sequence in sterically impeding rotation of the side chain of Asp141 within the binding site pocket. As a consequence, the aspartic acid is locked into a conformation adequate only for the recognition of equatorial hydroxyl groups on the C4 epimeric center (alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-glucose, and their derivatives). In contrast, the internal cleavage of the jacalin chain permits free rotation of the homologous aspartic acid, rendering it capable of accepting hydrogen bonds from both possible hydroxyl configurations on C4. We suggest that, together with direct recognition of epimeric hydroxyls and the steric exclusion of disfavored ligands, conformational restriction of the lectin should be considered to be a new mechanism by which selectivity may be built into carbohydrate binding sites. Jacalin and KM+ adopt the beta-prism fold already observed in two unrelated protein families. Despite presenting little or no sequence similarity, an analysis of the beta-prism reveals a canonical feature repeatedly present in all such structures, which is based on six largely hydrophobic residues within a beta-hairpin containing two classic-type beta-bulges. We suggest the term beta-prism motif to describe this feature. (+info
Molecular cloning of a novel human collectin from liver (CL-L1).
Collectins are a C-lectin family with collagen-like sequences and carbohydrate recognition domains. These proteins can bind to carbohydrate antigens of microorganisms and inhibit their infection by direct neutralization and agglutination, the activation of complement through the lectin pathway, and opsonization by collectin receptors. Here we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding human collectin from liver (CL-L1 (collectin liver 1)) that has typical collectin structural characteristics, consisting of an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, a collagen-like domain, a neck domain, and a carbohydrate recognition domain. The cDNA has an insert of 831 base pairs coding for a protein of 277 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that this collectin has a unique repeat of four lysine residues in its C-terminal area. Northern blot, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that CL-L1 is present mainly in liver as a cytosolic protein and at low levels in placenta. More sensitive analyses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions showed that most tissues (except skeletal muscle) have CL-L1 mRNA. Zoo-blot analysis indicated that CL-L1 is limited to mammals and birds. A chromosomal localization study indicated that the CL-L1 gene localizes to chromosome 8q23-q24.1, different from chromosome 10 of other human collectin genes. Expression studies of fusion proteins lacking the collagen and N-terminal domains produced in Escherichia coli affirmed that CL-L1 binds mannose weakly. CL-L1 and recombinant CL-L1 fusion proteins do not bind to mannan columns. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree of CL-L1 and other collectins indicated that CL-L1 belongs to a fourth subfamily of collectins following the mannan-binding protein, surfactant protein A, and surfactant protein D subfamilies including bovine conglutinin and collectin-43 (CL-43). These findings indicate that CL-L1 may be involved in different biological functions. (+info
Isolation, characterization, molecular cloning and molecular modelling of two lectins of different specificities from bluebell (Scilla campanulata) bulbs.
Two lectins have been isolated from bluebell (Scilla campanulata) bulbs. From their isolation by affinity chromatography, they are characterized as a mannose-binding lectin (SCAman) and a fetuin-binding lectin (SCAfet). SCAman preferentially binds oligosaccharides with alpha(1,3)- and alpha(1,6)-linked mannopyranosides. It is a tetramer of four identical protomers of approx. 13 kDa containing 119 amino acid residues; it is not glycosylated. The fetuin-binding lectin (SCAfet), which is not inhibited by any simple sugars, is also unglycosylated. It is a tetramer of four identical subunits of approx. 28 kDa containing 244 residues. Each 28 kDa subunit is composed of two 14 kDa domains. Both lectins have been cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. X-ray crystallographic analysis and molecular modelling studies have demonstrated close relationships in sequence and structure between these lectins and other monocot mannose-binding lectins. A refined model of the molecular evolution of the monocot mannose-binding lectins is proposed. (+info
Glomerular deposition of mannose-binding lectin in human glomerulonephritis.
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a member of the collectin family, binds to various oligosaccharides and activates the classical pathway of complement independent from C1q. At present it is unknown whether this so-called lectin pathway of complement activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis. METHODS: Direct immunofluorescence of 84 renal biopsies using an MBL-specific monoclonal antibody and antibodies directed against IgG, IgA, IgM, C1q, C3, and terminal complement complex (TCC) was performed. Serum MBL levels of 50 patients were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: MBL was detected in the glomeruli of patients with lupus nephropathy (15 of 16), membranous nephropathy (10/15), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I (5/6) and anti-GBM nephritis (2/4). MBL deposition paralleled that of immunoglobulins, C1q, C3, and TCC but was less intense as compared to C1q. Focal segmental deposits of MBL were present in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (4/6), IgA nephropathy (3/11), amyloidosis AL (1/4), and advanced renal fibrosis (2/2). Here MBL staining was identical to IgM and C3 and considered an unspecific entrapment of MBL in sclerotic lesions in these cases. No significant difference in MBL serum levels was observed between normal controls and patients with lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal segmental sclerosis, minimal change disease or IgA nephropathy. In patients suffering from membranous nephropathy with (n=10) or without (n=5) glomerular MBL deposits serum creatinine, C3, C4, serum protein, and proteinuria were not statistically different. CONCLUSION: MBL is present in the glomeruli of patients with glomerulonephritis involving deposition of IgG and activation of the classical pathway of complement. We propose that MBL binds to agalactosyl oligosaccharides of IgG that terminate in N-acetylglucosamine. The extent to which the lectin pathway of complement contributes to overall complement activation in the glomeruli remains unknown, but is likely to be marginal. (+info
The significance of IgG subclasses and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) for susceptibility to infection in apparently healthy adults with IgA deficiency.
The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of IgG subclasses and MBL for susceptibility to infection in association with IgA deficiency. The study population consisted of 139 apparently healthy adult blood donors with IgA deficiency and normal serum levels of IgG and IgM, and an increased susceptibility to infection demonstrated at a population level. Additionally, 216 controls matched for age and sex were investigated. IgG4 deficiency was more common and the mean level of IgG4 lower in persons with IgA deficiency than in the controls. No significant associations could be demonstrated between overt IgG subclass deficiencies and increased susceptibility to infection. However, when the mean concentrations of IgG subclasses were analysed with regard to medical history, that of IgG1 was lower in persons who reported recurrent viral respiratory infections, that of IgG3 in persons who had episodes of severe infection in their history, and that of IgG4 in persons who had recurrent mild respiratory infections, compared with those who had no particular history of infections. In contrast, MBL deficiency-alone or combined with that of the IgG subclass-was not associated with increased susceptibility to infection in persons with IgA deficiency. The results indicate that the proneness to infections observed in a population of otherwise healthy persons with IgA deficiency can only for a small part be accounted for by concomitant deficiencies of IgG subclasses. Contrary to expectations, no synergism between the deficiencies of IgA and MBL could be demonstrated. (+info
Antibody-independent classical complement pathway activation and homologous C3 deposition in xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines.
Of human malignantly transformed cell lines, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell lines were found to be highly susceptible to homologous complement (C): cells were opsonized by C3 fragments on incubation with diluted normal human serum. C3 fragment deposition on XP cells was Ca2+-dependent and occurred on live cells but not UV-irradiated apoptotic cells. (Ca2+ is required for activation of the classical C pathway via C1q and the lactin pathway via mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the surface of apoptotic cells usually activates the alternative C pathway.) In this study we tested which of the pathways participates in XP cell C3 deposition. In seven cell lines that allowed C3 deposition (i), Clq was shown to be essential but MBL played no role in C activation, (ii) Cls but not MASP bound XP cells for activation, (iii) no antibodies recognizing XP cells were required for homologous C3 deposition, and (iv) the alternative pathway barely participated in C3 deposition. Furthermore, the levels of C-regulatory proteins for host cell protection against C, decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46), were found to be relatively low in almost all XP cell lines compared with normal cells. These results indicate that XP cells activate the classical C pathway in an antibody-independent manner through the expression of a molecule which directly attracts C1q in a C-activating form, and that relatively low levels of DAF and MCP on XP cells facilitate effective C3 deposition. The possible relationship between the pathogenesis of XP and our findings is discussed. (+info