(1/504) Dipyridamole inhibits TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal matrix accumulation is characteristic of peritoneal fibrosis (PF). Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients who had persistent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in their drained effluent had an increased risk of PF. We previously reported that TGF-beta stimulates the expression of types I and III collagen mRNA in cultured human peritoneal mesangial cells (HPMCs), which may predispose them to develop PF. Pharmacological interventions to attenuate TGF-beta-stimulated matrix accumulation in HPMC may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PF. The SMAD family and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2, p44/p42) pathways have been shown to participate in TGF-beta signaling. Our current study identified these signal pathways in HPMCs and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of dipyridamole on TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in HPMCs. METHODS: HPMCs were cultured from human omentum by an enzyme digestion METHOD: Expression of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA was determined by Northern blotting. The SMAD proteins and the ERK1/2 activity were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS: TGF-beta-stimulated collagen alpha1(I) mRNA expression of HPMC was inhibited by dipyridamole in a dose-dependent manner. Smad2 and ERK1/2 were activated in response to TGF-beta; however, TGF-beta had little effect on the protein expression of Smad4. The addition of PD98059, which blocked activation of ERK1/2, suppressed TGF-beta-induced collagen alpha1(I) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration that inhibited collagen gene expression (17 microg/mL), dipyridamole suppressed ERK1/2 activation by TGF-beta. In contrast, the same concentration of dipyridamole had no effect on TGF-beta-induced activation of Smad2. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole inhibits TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in HPMC through modulation of the ERK pathway. Our study of dipyridamole may provide therapeutic basis for clinical applications in the prevention of PF.  (+info)

(2/504) Haploinsufficiency for one COL3A1 allele of type III procollagen results in a phenotype similar to the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

Mutations in the COL3A1 gene that encodes the chains of type III procollagen result in the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), EDS type IV, if they alter the sequence in the triple-helical domain. Although other fibrillar collagen-gene mutations that lead to allele instability or failure to incorporate proalpha-chains into trimers-and that thus reduce the amount of mature molecules produced-result in clinically apparent phenotypes, no such mutations have been identified in COL3A1. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Col3a1 "null" alleles have no identified phenotype. We have now found three frameshift mutations (1832delAA, 413delC, and 555delT) that lead to premature termination codons (PTCs) in exons 27, 6, and 9, respectively, and to allele-product instability. The mRNA from each mutant allele was transcribed efficiently but rapidly degraded, presumably by the mechanisms of nonsense-mediated decay. In a fourth patient, we identified a point mutation, in the final exon, that resulted in a PTC (4294C-->T [Arg1432Ter]). In this last instance, the mRNA was stable but led to synthesis of a truncated protein that was not incorporated into mature type III procollagen molecules. In all probands, the presenting feature was vascular aneurysm or rupture. Thus, in contrast to mutations in genes that encode the dominant protein of a tissue (e.g., COL1A1 and COL2A1), in which "null" mutations result in phenotypes milder than those caused by mutations that alter protein sequence, the phenotypes produced by these mutations in COL3A1 overlap with those of the vascular form of EDS. This suggests that the major effect of many of these dominant mutations in the "minor" collagen genes may be expressed through protein deficiency rather than through incorporation of structurally altered molecules into fibrils.  (+info)

(3/504) Cardiac remodeling after long term norepinephrine treatment in rats.

OBJECTIVE: In this study we have tested the hypothesis that degradation of collagen by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) precedes the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) after long term norepinephrine (NE) treatment. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats received continuous i.v. infusion of NE (0.1 mg/kg.h) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 14 days. Heart function and weight as well as expression of cardiac colligin and of collagen I and III were examined. Furthermore, we have assessed the degradation pathway of collagen by measuring the mRNA and activity of myocardial MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) as well as the protein level of TIMP-2. RESULTS: NE induced hypertrophy predominantly of the left ventricle (LV) in a time-dependent manner. It increased the mRNAs of colligin, collagen I and III, and of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 as well as MMP-2 activity in two phases: In the initial phase, at 3 and 4 days, the mRNA of colligin and of collagen I and III was elevated predominantly in the LV, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA, as well as TIMP-2 protein and MMP-activity were increased in both ventricles. The second phase, after 14 days, was characterized by a less pronounced increase in colligin, collagen I and III and in MMP-2 activity which occurred exclusively in the LV. Finally, long-term treatment with NE induced a 37% increase in interstitial fibrosis which was shown to occur exclusively in the LV after 14 days. CONCLUSION: NE treatment induced fibrosis exclusively in the LV which was associated with hypertrophy predominantly of the LV. The elevated MMP-2 activity seems to be necessary for the ECM to adapt to the enlargement of myocytes and to reduce overproduction of collagen.  (+info)

(4/504) Biophysical characterization of the C-propeptide trimer from human procollagen III reveals a tri-lobed structure.

Procollagen C-propeptide domains direct chain association during intracellular assembly of procollagen molecules. In addition, they control collagen solubility during extracellular proteolytic processing and fibril formation and interact with cell surface receptors and extracellular matrix components involved in feedback inhibition, mineralization, cell growth arrest, and chemotaxis. At present, three-dimensional structural information for the C-propeptides, which would help to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, is lacking. Here we have carried out a biophysical study of the recombinant C-propeptide trimer from human procollagen III using laser light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and small angle x-ray scattering. The results show that the trimer is an elongated molecule, which by modeling of the x-ray scattering data appears to be cruciform in shape with three large lobes and one minor lobe. We speculate that each of the major lobes corresponds to one of the three component polypeptide chains, which come together in a junction region to connect to the rest of the procollagen molecule.  (+info)

(5/504) Role of protein kinase C-delta in the regulation of collagen gene expression in scleroderma fibroblasts.

Working with cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from control individuals and patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we have examined the effects of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) on type I collagen biosynthesis and steady-state levels of COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNAs. Rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-delta, exerted a powerful, dose-dependent inhibition of type I and type III collagen gene expression in normal and SSc cells. Optimal rottlerin concentrations caused a 70-90% inhibition of type I collagen production, a >80% reduction in COL1A1 mRNA, and a >70% reduction in COL3A1 mRNA in both cell types. In vitro nuclear transcription assays and transient transfections with COL1A1 promoter deletion constructs demonstrated that rottlerin profoundly reduced COL1A1 transcription and that this effect required a 129-bp promoter region encompassing nucleotides -804 to -675. This COL1A1 segment imparted rottlerin sensitivity to a heterologous promoter. Cotransfections of COL1A1 promoter constructs with a dominant-negative PKC-delta expression plasmid showed that suppression of this kinase silenced COL1A1 promoter activity. The results indicate that PKC-delta participates in the upregulation of collagen gene transcription in SSc and suggest that treatment with PKC-delta inhibitors could suppress fibrosis in this disease.  (+info)

(6/504) Interstitial collagens I, III, and VI sequester and modulate the multifunctional cytokine oncostatin M.

The binding of certain growth factors and cytokines to components of the extracellular matrix can regulate their local availability and modulate their biological activities. We show that oncostatin M (OSM), a profibrogenic cytokine and modulator of cancer cell proliferation, specifically binds to collagen types I, III, IV, and VI, immobilized on polystyrene or nitrocellulose. Single collagen chains inhibit these interactions in a dose-dependent manner. Cross-inhibition experiments of collagen-derived peptides point to a limited set of OSM-binding collagenous consensus sequences. Furthermore, this interaction is found for OSM but not for other interleukin-6 type cytokines. OSM binding to collagens is saturable, with dissociation constants around 10(-8) m and estimated molar ratios of 1-3 molecules of OSM bound to one molecule of triple helical collagen. Furthermore, collagen-bound OSM is biologically active and able to inhibit proliferation of A375 melanoma cells. We conclude that abundant interstitial collagens dictate the spatial pattern of bioavailable OSM. This interaction could be exploited for devising collagenous peptide-antagonists that modulate OSM bioactivity in tumor growth and fibrotic disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

(7/504) Adenosine regulates the IL-1 beta-induced cellular functions of human gingival fibroblasts.

In this study we examined the influence of adenosine on the cellular functions of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), such as the production of inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrices (ECM), and the expression and function of adhesion molecules. Concerning the expression of adenosine receptors, RT-PCR analysis revealed that HGF expressed adenosine receptor A1, A2a and A2b, but not A3 mRNA. Ligation of adenosine receptors by adenosine or its related analogue, 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO), N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or CGS21680 synergistically increased IL-1beta-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. In terms of ECM expression, adenosine and the adenosine receptor agonists, 2-CADO and CPA, enhanced constitutive and IL-1beta-induced expression of hyaluronate synthase mRNA, but not the mRNA levels of other ECM, such as collagen type I, III and fibronectin. Moreover, the adherence of IL-1beta-stimulated HGF to activated lymphocytes was also inhibited by adenosine, which is in part explained by the fact that adenosine down-regulated the IL-1beta-induced expression of ICAM-1 on HGF. These results provide new evidence for the possible involvement of adenosine in the regulation of inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues.  (+info)

(8/504) Mast cell chymase inhibits smooth muscle cell growth and collagen expression in vitro: transforming growth factor-beta1-dependent and -independent effects.

In the vulnerable areas of fibrous caps of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, chymase-containing mast cells are present. In such areas, the numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the content of collagen are reduced. In this in vitro study, we found that the addition of chymase, isolated and purified from rat serosal mast cells, to cultured rat aortic SMCs of the synthetic phenotype (s-SMCs) inhibited their proliferation by blocking the G(0)/G(1)-->S transition in the cell cycle. Rat chymase and recombinant human chymase inhibited the expression of collagen type I and type III mRNA in s-SMCs and in human coronary arterial SMCs. The growth-inhibitory effect of chymase was partially reversed by addition to the culture medium of an antibody capable of neutralizing the activity of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Immunocytochemistry showed that the s-SMCs expressed and synthesized extracellular matrix-associated TGF-beta1. On exposure to mast cell chymase, the extracellular matrix-associated latent TGF-beta1 was released and activated, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and by an ELISA with TGF-beta1 type II receptor for capture. When added to s-SMCs, such chymase-released TGF-beta1 was capable of inhibiting their growth. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of chymase on collagen synthesis by s-SMCs did not depend on TGF-beta1. Taken together, the findings support the hypothesis that chymase released from activated mast cells in atherosclerotic plaques contributes to cap remodeling.  (+info)