(1/521) Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women.

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

(2/521) Headaches related to sexual activity.

Twenty-one patients experienced headache related to sexual activity. Two varieties of headache could be distinguished from the clinical histories. The first, developing as sexual excitement mount, had the characteristics of muscle contraction headache. The second, severe, throbbing or 'explosive' in character, occurring at the time of orgasm, was presumably of vascular origin associated with a hyperdynamic circulatory state. Two of the patients with the latter type of headache had each experienced episodes of cerebral vascular insufficiency on one occasion which subsequently resolved. A third patient in this category had a past history of drop attacks. No evidence of any structural lesion was obtained on clinical examination or investigation, including cerebral angiography in seven patients. Eighteen patients have been followed up for periods of two to seven years without any serious intracranial disorder becoming apparent. While the possibility of intracranial vascular or other lesions must always be borne in mind, there appears to be a syndrome of headache associated with sexual excitement where no organic change can be demonstrated, analogous to benign cough headache and benign exertional headache.  (+info)

(3/521) Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15.

This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.  (+info)

(4/521) Sexual functioning among stroke patients and their spouses.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess effects of stroke on sexual functioning of stroke patients and their spouses and to study the associations of clinical and psychosocial factors with poststroke changes in sexual functions. METHODS: One hundred ninety-two stroke patients and 94 spouses participating in stroke adjustment courses sponsored by the Finnish Stroke and Aphasia Federation completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning their prestroke and poststroke sexual functions and habits. The main outcome measures were (1) libido, (2) coital frequency, (3) sexual arousal, including erectile and orgastic ability and vaginal lubrication, and (4) sexual satisfaction. RESULTS: A majority of the stroke patients reported a marked decline in all the measured sexual functions, ie, libido, coital frequency, erectile and orgastic ability, and vaginal lubrication, as well as in their sexual satisfaction. The most important explanatory factors for these changes were the general attitude toward sexuality (odds ratio [OR] range, 7.4 to 21.9; logistic regression analysis), fear of impotence (OR, 6.1), inability to discuss sexuality (OR range, 6.8 to 18.5), unwillingness to participate in sexual activity (OR range, 3.1 to 5. 4), and the degree of functional disability (OR range, 3.2 to 5.0). The spouses also reported a significant decline in their libido, sexual activity, and sexual satisfaction as a consequence of stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction with sexual life are common in both male and female stroke patients and in their spouses. Psychological and social factors seem to exert a strong impact on sexual functioning and the quality of sexual life after stroke.  (+info)

(5/521) Death due to air embolism during sexual intercourse in the puerperium.

We describe the cases of two young women who died due to air embolism during sexual intercourse early in the puerperium.  (+info)

(6/521) Induction of heat shock protein expression in cervical epithelial cells by human semen.

OBJECTIVE: The 70kD heat shock protein (Hsp70), induced when cells are subjected to environmental stress, prevents the denaturation and incorrect folding of polypeptides and may expedite replication and transmission of DNA and RNA viruses. We analyzed whether messenger RNA (mRNA) for Hsp70 was expressed following exposure of a cultured human cervical cell line (HeLa cells) to human semen or in cervical cells from sexually active women. STUDY DESIGN: HeLa cells were co-cultured with a 1:50 dilution of semen from four men or with purified spermatozoa or cell-free seminal fluid. Endocervical swabs were acquired at mid-cycle from 53 women. Heat shock protein 70 mRNA was detected by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction utilizing specific primer pairs and analysis on agarose gels. In cervical cells Hsp70 mRNA was measured identically followed by hybridization with an Hsp70-specific internal probe and detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cervical immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to the human Hsp70 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: HeLa cell-semen co-culture resulted in the induction of Hsp70 mRNA. In addition, cell-free seminal plasma and motile sperm incubated individually with HeLa cells also induced this mRNA. Heat shock protein 70 mRNA was detected in 28 (52.8%) of 53 endocervical samples obtained from women at various time points following intercourse. The percentage of samples expressing this mRNA was 37.5% at less than 10 hours, 64.3% at 10 hours, 70% at 11 hours, and between 36% and 50% at later times after semen exposure. The detection of cervical IgA antibodies to the Hsp70 was highly associated with Hsp70 gene transcription. CONCLUSION: Human semen induces transcription of Hsp70 in cervical epithelial cells.  (+info)

(7/521) Recurrent cystitis in nonpregnant women.

Consistent evidence from RCTs shows that antibiotic prophylaxis (either continuous or postcoital), using trimethoprim TMP-SMZ, nitrofurantoin, or a quinolone, reduces infection rates in women with high rates of recurrent cystitis (at least two per year). Limited evidence suggests that intermittent patient-administered treatment (taken at the onset of symptoms) is an effective alternative management strategy to continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in women with high rates of infection (at least two per year). Limited evidence suggests that long-term prophylaxis is likely to benefit women with a baseline rate of more than two infections per year over many years. However, long-term treatment has not yet been evaluated in RCTs. In women who experience recurrent, uncomplicated cystitis, there is no evidence to support routine investigation of the urinary tract with excretory urography, ultrasonography, cystoscopy, or voiding cystourethrography. No specific subgroups of women who would clearly benefit from investigation have yet been adequately defined.  (+info)

(8/521) Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two studies with imperfect measures of ovulation.

Two studies have related the timing of sexual intercourse (relative to ovulation) to day-specific fecundability. The first was a study of Catholic couples practising natural family planning in London in the 1950s and 1960s and the second was of North Carolina couples attempting to become pregnant in the early 1980s. The former identified ovulation based on the ovulatory shift in the basal body temperature, while the latter used urinary assays of hormones. We use a statistical model to correct for error in identifying ovulation and to re-estimate the length of the fertile window and day-specific fecundabilities. We estimate the same 6-day fertile interval in both studies after controlling for error. After adjusting for error both data sets showed the highest estimate of the probability of pregnancy on the day prior to ovulation and both fell close to zero after ovulation. Given that the fertile interval is before ovulation, methods that anticipate ovulation by several days (such as the assessment of cervical mucus) would be particularly useful for couples who want to time their intercourse either to avoid or facilitate conception.  (+info)