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(1/1033) REACTIONS OF MONKEYS TO EXPERIMENTAL MIXED INFLUENZA AND STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTIONS : AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIVE ROLES OF HUMORAL AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF AN INTERCURRENT NEPHRITIC SYNDROME.

1. The vital importance of the cellular defense forces in the resistance of the monkey to combined streptococcus and influenza virus infections has been demonstrated. 2. Some of the conditions prejudicial to the maintenance of an optimum cellular reserve in the infected animal have been revealed; viz., undernutrition, physical cold, intratracheal route of infection. 3. The potential threat exerted by latent foci of streptococci, and the importance, in relation to the combined infection with virus, of cellular and humoral immunity, together or separately, have been demonstrated. The essential role of optimum nutrition (notably as concerns the vitamin B complex, and folic acid specifically) in the prevention of disastrous illness from these infectious agents, individually or in combination, would seem to have been proven. 4. Signs of glomerular nephritis appeared in a significant number of monkeys receiving Streptococcus hemolyticus and influenza virus in sequence, followed by reinoculation or spontaneous reappearance of the streptococci. 5. Reinoculation of Streptococcus hemolyticus, group C, resulted in a prompt "booster" increase in the opsonic index. Virus instillation was followed by just as sudden a depression in this index. 6. Reinoculation failed to evoke either the granulocytosis or the leucopenia in monkeys which are characteristic effects of the streptococcus and the virus respectively when these agents are introduced for the first time by way of the nasal mucous membrane. 7. Simultaneous intranasal inoculation of influenza virus, type A, and Streptococcus hemolyticus, group C, in nutritionally normal Macaca mulatta failed to produce obvious signs of disease. In most of the animals, however, a streptococcus-induced leucocytosis followed by a delayed virus-induced granulopenia developed. 8. Inoculation of influenza virus followed in 4 to 17 days by streptococci produced obvious signs of disease in five of eleven animals which had become leucopenic as result of the action of the virus, and fatal streptococcal septicemia in two monkeys. 9. The development of signs of infection in previously healthy monkeys exposed to virus followed by streptococci confirms both the clinical and laboratory experience of other observers, that virus infection may predispose to secondary bacterial invasion, and, that at times, under unfavorable circumstances, the infection may become overwhelming. Although the complete mechanism of resistance is as yet not wholly clear, the depressant or inhibitory effect of the virus on both its cellular and humoral elements has been established.  (+info)

(2/1033) The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection.

Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. - Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. - HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. - The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.  (+info)

(3/1033) The impact of HIV/HCV co-infection on health care utilization and disability: results of the ACTG Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) Cohort.

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(4/1033) Fungal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: successful prophylaxis with fluconazole, as demonstrated by prospective randomized control trial.

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(5/1033) Short communication decreased incidence of dual infections in South african subtype C-infected women compared to a cohort ten years earlier.

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(6/1033) HIV-malaria co-infection: effects of malaria on the prevalence of HIV in East sub-Saharan Africa.

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(7/1033) Description of the parasite Wucheria bancrofti microfilariae identified in follicular fluid following transvaginal oocyte retrieval.

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(8/1033) IL-22 production is regulated by IL-23 during Listeria monocytogenes infection but is not required for bacterial clearance or tissue protection.

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