Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia. (+info)
Antigenic relationship between four airborne palm pollen grains from Calcutta, India.
The pollen grains of Areca catechu, Borassus flabellifer, Cocos nucifera and Phoenix sylvestris, all belonging to the family Aracaceae (Palmae), are airborne and found to be potent in causing human respiratory allergy. The present study was undertaken to discover the antigenic relationship, if any, in the four relevant palm pollen grains. The study was conducted by using Borassus and Phoenix antisera raised in rabbit. These antisera were used in rabbit IgG specific ELISA-inhibition and rocket immunoelectro-phoresis (RIE) assays for all four palm pollen extracts. In ELISA-inhibition, a distinct inhibition was obtained with comparable amount of soluble pollen protein. The RIE precipitin bands also revealed the presence of common antigenic components in the palm pollen. After isolation and purification, such common antigens may be useful in allergen immunotherapy in asthmatics. (+info)
Effects of quantity and unsaturation of dietary fat on serum components in normal and diabetic Macaca nigra.
Dietary fat affects serum lipids independently of dietary cholesterol. Normal and diabetic monkeys (Macaca nigra) were fed cereal-based, specially formulated diets with either a low fat (LF = 2.5%) or a higher fat (13.2%) content; the latter had varying concentrations of safflower and coconut oil to attain greater polyunsaturation (SFO) or saturation (CCO) in the diets. Dietary cholesterol was less than 0.01%. Serum triglyceride concentrations were greatest when monkeys consumed the LF (higher carbohydrate) diet and lowest when they consumed the SFO diet. Concentrations were greater in diabetic than in normal monkeys fed the LF and SFO diets, but both groups had similar concentrations when fed the CCO diet. Cholesterol levels in diabetic monkeys were only slightly higher than in normals regardless of diet; in both groups, levels were lowest when the LF diet was fed and highest when the CCO diet was fed. The quantity of fat had a greater effect on serum cholesterol than did the degree of polyunsaturation. In both groups, triglyceride concentrations correlated significantly with VLDL protein, and cholesterol levels correlated with LDL protein. Thus the responses of Macaca nigra to dietary fat manipulation depend upon both the diet fat content and composition as well as the normal or diabetic metabolic state of each monkey. (+info)
Activities associated with the putative replication initiation protein of coconut foliar decay virus, a tentative member of the genus Nanovirus.
The putative replication initiation protein (Rep) of Coconut foliar decay virus (CFDV) was expressed as a 6x His recombinant protein in E. coli and in recombinant baculovirus. Purified 6x His-Rep protein was demonstrated to possess sequence non-specific RNA- and ssDNA-binding activities as well as magnesium-dependent ATPase/GTPase activity. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that CFDV Rep could interact with itself. Subcellular distribution of the CFDV Rep was studied by fractionation of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing the 6x His-Rep protein and by laser scanning confocal microscopy of Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells bombarded with a construct encoding CFDV Rep fused to GFP. It was shown that CFDV Rep associated predominantly with nuclei and membranes of infected/transfected cells. These activities of CFDV-encoded Rep are very similar to those reported for Reps of geminiviruses. (+info)
Influence of exogenous natural oils on the omega-1 and omega-2 hydroxy fatty acid moiety of sophorose lipid produced by Candida bombicola.
Candida bombicola can synthesize monohydroxy fatty acid as a moiety of sophorose lipids. The hydroxy fatty acids contained in a major lactone were identified by GC-MS, after culturing with natural oils such as coconut, rapeseed, olive, and soybean oils. Hydroxy fatty acids of C18 and C16 were always synthesized, but differences were observed among the oils regarding the positions of hydroxyl groups, unsaturation, and composition of the fatty acids. A new C17 hydroxy acid was found without addition of oil. (+info)
A clinical and radiographic study of coir workers.
Processing of coir, which is the fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut, is a dusty procedure; 779 workers in two coir processing factories in Sri Lanka were examined clincally and radiographically for evidence of respiratory disease. Respiratory symptoms were present in 20 (2-6%) of them, which is no higher than in the general population. Respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis which may occur from occupational exposures were considered, but there was no evidence to suggest a definite association between these conditions and coir dust. Twenty-two workers had abnormal chest radiographs, but when compared with a control group of 591 workers from an engineering firm where lesions were found in 20 cases, there was no significant difference. In the opinion of the medical officer, management and workers of the large factory investigated, coir dust does not produce any respiratory disability. The chemical composition of coir dust is similar to that of sisal which is also relatively inert. (+info)
Cholesterol kinetic analysis in normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits; effects of saturated versus polyunsaturated fat and of cholestyramine.
A model for cholesterol metabolism in rabbits has been demonstrated based on kinetic analysis and total carcass analysis. As has been shown for humans and primates, the model conforms to a two-exchangeable pool model with a third pool not exchangeing during the time interval studied. Alterations in turnover rate, sizes of pools, and exchange rates were demonstrated when rabbits were fed diets containing increased amounts of cholesterol and fat. Evidence was presented that indicated that the there may be differences in tissue distribution of cholesterol, dependent on whether the fat fed with choleserol is saturated or polyunsaturated. These differences include: in rabbits fed cholesterol plus coconut oil is compared with those fed cholesterol plus corn oil, the ratio of the amount of cholesterol in plasma to the amount of cholesterol in pool B was higher, and the rate constant for transfer from pool B was higher. The serum cholesterol concentration of rabbits fed cholesterol plus coconut oil was lowered slightly by feeding cholestyramine. Cholestyramine administration at the dose fed failed to produce statistically significant alterations in pool sizes or serum cholesterol concentration in control rabbits; it did lower serum cholesterol concentration in rabbits fed cholesterol plus coconut oil. (+info)
Changes in fatty acid composition during development of tissues of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos in the intact nut and in vitro.
Intact coconuts were germinated in situ and compared with excised zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. The growth of the embryonic tissue and their fatty acid compositions were measured. Haustoria, plumules and radicles of coconuts germinated in situ grew continuously and proportionately throughout the 120 d experiment with haustauria increasing to 45 g x nut(-1) and weighing 4-5-fold more than the other two tissues. The plumules and radicles of the seedlings cultured in vitro also grew continuously but the haustoria grew sporadically between 15 d and 75 d in culture and, at 250 mg x nut(-1) after 75 d, were smaller than the other two tissues. All the tissues of the nuts grown in situ contained significant amounts of lauric acid, the acid characteristic of coconut oil, as well as longer chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The content of medium and long chain fatty acids increased in all growing tissues as the experiment proceeded, especially the haustorium which contained 24-35% of its fatty acid as lauric acid; the fat content of solid endosperm reduced during this period. Seedlings grown in vitro, on the other hand, failed to accumulate lauric acid in any of their tissues (haustorium contained 6-11% of its fatty acid as lauric acid). The results may have implications for the design of growth media for growing zygotic and somatic cultures of coconut and may provide a marker for successful germination. (+info)