Older men and women efficiently absorb vitamin B-12 from milk and fortified bread.
Nothing is directly known about the bioavailability of vitamin B-12 from dairy products or fortified grain products. We directly studied vitamin B-12 absorption from water, milk and fortified bread in adult subjects using (58)Co-labeled vitamin B-12 and a whole body gamma-ray counter/spectrophotometer. Sixteen healthy men and women over the age of 60 y with normal serum levels of vitamin B-12 and normal basal gastric acid secretion were studied. (58)Co vitamin B-12 (0.25 microg) was administered in water, milk or fortified bread to each subject along with 185 kBq (5.0 microCi) (51)Cr as a stool marker. Whole body counting was performed 30 min after ingestion of the radioactive dose and at 7 and 14 d after dosing. Mean absorptions from water, milk and fortified bread were 55, 65 and 55%, respectively, and did not differ. The high body retention of the extrinsic vitamin B-12 label from milk and bread may warrant a greater use of such fortified products in the elderly to ensure vitamin B-12 adequacy. (+info)
Measurement of residual 60Co activity induced by atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki and background contribution by environmental neutrons.
Residual 60Co activity in five steel samples induced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured within about 1000 m from the hypocenter. The chemical separation of cobalt and nickel from steel samples was performed, and cobalt-enriched samples were prepared for all samples. Gamma-ray measurements were carried out with a low-background well-type germanium detector. The gamma-ray spectra for five samples were compared with the spectrum of a control sample to ensure that the observed 60Co was actually induced by A-bomb neutrons. The activation of cobalt by environmental neutrons was also investigated. It has been shown that the present 60Co data are consistent with earlier Hashizume's data. (+info)
The reliability and reproducibility of the Schilling test in primary malabsorptive disease and after partial gastrectomy.
A study of the reproducibility and reliability of the Schilling test in patients with primary malabsorptive disease and after partial gastrectomy is reported. The value of the test was assessed by repeated tests in each patient. Consistently normal or abnormal results were obtained in only one of the seven patients with primary malabsorptive disease and in only two of the eight patients who had undergone partial gastrectomy. From these results it is concluded that the result of a single test may be of little clinical value. Assessment of the results suggests that the mean value for a series of Schilling tests may give some indication of value clinically about the capacity to absorb radioactive vitamin B(12) at the time of the tests at least in patients who have undergone partial gastrectomy. The significance of the findings is discussed, particularly in relation to the aetiology of post-gastrectomy megaloblastic anaemia. (+info)
Radiation therapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the lung.
In Ontario in the past 25 years, the death rate from cancer of the lung has shown a substantial increase, ninefold for males and twofold for females. The male:female ratio varied from an average of 8.5:1 to as high as 11.7:1 at the ages 65 to 69. From 1938 to 1958, one-quarter of the total cases (2457) were treated in Ontario Cancer Clinics. Survival rates were: for one year, 20%; three years, 6.5%, and for five years, 3.8%. Fifty-four per cent of surgically treated patients and 63% treated by resection and radiotherapy were alive one year after treatment. Of 821 cases treated with orthovoltage the one-year survival rate was 14%, and of 862 cases treated with cobalt therapy, 23%. It was concluded that this improvement in results may be attributed to the difference in treatment. (+info)
THE URINARY EXCRETION AND TISSUE RETENTION OF CYANOCOBALAMIN BY SUBJECTS GIVEN REPEATED PARENTERAL DOSES.
The urinary excretion of injected cyanocobalamin was studied in 30 previously untreated vitamin B(12)-deficient patients by measuring the urinary radioactivity after repeated injections of (58)Co vitamin B(12). The dose range used was 54 to 30,000 mug., each patient receiving the same dose at each injection. The results show that there is no constant trend to the excretion of greater or smaller proportions of the amount injected. It is also shown that there is a wide variation in the amounts excreted by each individual and between individual patients and that the capacity of the tissues to retain injected cyanocobalamin is very great, the amounts retained often being greatly in excess of the normal body stores. The excretion of radioactivity after parenteral infections of (58)Co vitamin B(12) was usually complete within 24 hours but exceptions to this were seen. The significance and value of the results is discussed. (+info)
CONSTRICTING ESOPHAGEAL LESIONS. COLON INTERPOSITION FOR REPLACEMENT, COMBINED WITH RADIOTHERAPY FOR CARCINOMA.
The use of colon for esophageal replacement is a procedure that should be considered in the treatment of benign and malignant esophageal lesions. The five-year survival data following operations for carcinoma of the esophagus are not outstanding. The combination of colon transplantation and radiotherapy before and after operation is a procedure that should be utilized if an effort is to be made to increase the survival rate. (+info)
A REPORT OF THREE STRAINS OF PASTEURELLA SEPTICA ISOLATED IN HONG KONG.
Three strains of Past. septica were isolated in Hong Kong. The clinical histories and the detailed bacteriological and serological studies are presented. (+info)
MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF CORRINOIDS. I. VITAMIN B12.
Scott, W. M. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.), R. C. Burgus, J. B. Hufham, and J. J. Pfiffner. Microbial degradation of corrinoids. I. Vitamin B(12). J. Bacteriol. 88:581-585. 1964.-Microorganisms isolated from a variety of soil, sewage, and mud samples, and stock cultures, were examined for the ability to degrade vitamin B(12). More than 200 isolates which attack the vitamin were examined, and they all demonstrated reversible fading of the red vitamin. The color was restored by aeration. Very few microorganisms were able to degrade the vitamin to permanently colorless products, although many were able to degrade it partially, to produce new pigments. Some of these pigments appeared similar, if not identical, although they were produced by different bacteria. Radiotracer and electrophoretic mobility data are presented to show that the transformation products are derived from the vitamin. All the degradative microorganisms isolated were bacteria, and the most active was Pseudomonas rubescens. (+info)