Segregation of COPI-rich and anterograde-cargo-rich domains in endoplasmic-reticulum-to-Golgi transport complexes.
Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is regulated by two vesicular coat complexes, COPII and COPI. COPII has been implicated in the selective packaging of anterograde cargo into coated transport vesicles budding from the ER . In mammalian cells, these vesicles coalesce to form tubulo-vesicular transport complexes (TCs), which shuttle anterograde cargo from the ER to the Golgi complex   . In contrast, COPI-coated vesicles are proposed to mediate recycling of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER    . The binding of COPI to COPII-coated TCs   , however, has led to the proposal that COPI binds to TCs and specifically packages recycling proteins into retrograde vesicles for return to the ER  . To test this hypothesis, we tracked fluorescently tagged COPI and anterograde-transport markers simultaneously in living cells. COPI predominated on TCs shuttling anterograde cargo to the Golgi complex and was rarely observed on structures moving in directions consistent with retrograde transport. Furthermore, a progressive segregation of COPI-rich domains and anterograde-cargo-rich domains was observed in the TCs. This segregation and the directed motility of COPI-containing TCs were inhibited by antibodies that blocked COPI function. These observations, which are consistent with previous biochemical data  , suggest a role for COPI within TCs en route to the Golgi complex. By sequestering retrograde cargo in the anterograde-directed TCs, COPI couples the sorting of ER recycling proteins  to the transport of anterograde cargo. (+info
GTP hydrolysis by arf-1 mediates sorting and concentration of Golgi resident enzymes into functional COP I vesicles.
Upon addition of GTPgammaS to in vitro budding reactions, COP I vesicles form but retain their coat, making them easy to isolate and analyze. We have developed an in vitro budding assay that reconstitutes the formation of COP I-derived vesicles under conditions where GTP hydrolysis can occur. Once formed, vesicles are uncoated and appear functional as they fuse readily with acceptor membranes. Electron microscopy shows a homogeneous population of uncoated vesicles that contain the medial/trans Golgi enzyme alpha1, 2-mannosidase II. Biochemical quantitation of vesicles reveals that resident Golgi enzymes are up to 10-fold more concentrated than in donor membranes, but vesicles formed in the presence of GTPgammaS show an average density of resident Golgi enzymes similar to that seen in donor membranes. We show that the sorting process is mediated by the small GTPase arf-1 as addition of a dominant, hydrolysis-deficient arf-1 (Q)71(L) mutant produced results similar to that of GTPgammaS. Strikingly, the average density of the anterograde cargo protein, polymeric IgA receptor, in COP I-derived vesicles was similar to that found in starting membranes and was independent of GTP hydrolysis. We conclude that hydrolysis of GTP bound to arf-1 promotes selective segregation and concentration of Golgi resident enzymes into COP I vesicles. (+info
Studies on the inhibition of endosome fusion by GTPgammaS-bound ARF.
Using a cell free assay, we have previously shown that ARF is not required for endosome fusion but that inhibition of fusion by GTPgammaS is dependent on a cytosolic pool of ARFs. Since ARF is proposed to function in intracellular membrane traffic by promoting vesicle biogenesis, and components of clathrin- and COP-coated vesicles have been localized on endosomal structures, we investigated whether ARF-mediated inhibition of early endosome fusion involves the recruitment or irreversible association of these proteins onto endosomal membranes. We now report that depletion of components of clathrin coated vesicles (clathrin, AP-1 and AP-2) or COPI vesicles (beta COP) does not affect the capacity of GTPgammaS-activated ARF to inhibit endosome fusion. Inhibition of fusion by activated ARF is also independent of endosomal acidification since assays performed in the presence of the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 are equally sensitive to GTPgammaS-bound ARF. Finally, in contrast to reported effects on lysosomes, we demonstrate that ARF-GTPgammaS does not induce endosomal lysis. These combined data argue that sequestration of known coat proteins to membranes by activated ARF is not involved in the inhibition of early endosome fusion and that its capacity to inhibit fusion involves other specific interactions with the endosome surface. These results contrast with the mechanistic action of ARF on intra-Golgi transport and nuclear envelope assembly. (+info
Mutation of the yeast epsilon-COP gene ANU2 causes abnormal nuclear morphology and defects in intracellular vesicular transport.
Previously we reported an original method of visualizing the shape of yeast nuclei by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Xenopus nucleoplasmin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify components that determine nuclear structure, we searched for mutants exhibiting abnormal nuclear morphology from a collection of temperature-sensitive yeast strains expressing GFP-tagged nucleoplasmin. Four anu mutant strains (anu1-1, 2-1, 3-1 and 4-1; ANU=abnormal nuclear morphology) that exhibited strikingly different nuclear morphologies at the restrictive temperature as compared to the wild-type were isolated. The nuclei of these mutants were irregularly shaped and often consisted of multiple lobes. ANU1, 3 and 4 were found to encode known factors Sec24p, Sec13p and Sec18p, respectively, all of which are involved in the formation or fusion of intracellular membrane vesicles of protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, ANU2 was not well characterized. Disruption of ANU2 (delta anu2) was not lethal but conferred temperature-sensitivity for growth. Electron microscopic analysis of anu2-1 cells revealed not only the abnormal nuclear morphology but also excessive accumulation of ER membranes. In addition, both anu2-1 and delta anu2 cells were defective in protein transport between the ER and the Golgi, suggesting that Anu2p has an important role in vesicular transport in the early secretory pathway. Here we show that ANU2 encodes a 34 kDa polypeptide, which shares a 20% sequence identity with the mammalian epsilon-COP. Our results suggest that Anu2p is the yeast homologue of mammalian epsilon-COP and the abrupt accumulation of the ER membrane caused by a blockage of the early protein transport pathway leads to alteration of nuclear morphology of the budding yeast cells. (+info
The sorting determinant guiding Hsp150 to the COPI-independent transport pathway in yeast.
The COPI coatomer is thought to be required in yeast directly for retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and directly or indirectly for ER-to-Golgi transport. Unexpectedly, the secretory glycoproteins Hsp150 and invertase have been found not to require COPI for ER exit. The features according to which cargo proteins are selected for the COPI-independent pathway are not known. The ER form of Hsp150 has three distinct domains: an N-terminal fragment of 54 amino acids (subunit I) is followed by 11 repeats of a 19 amino acid peptide plus a unique C-terminal fragment of 114 amino acids (subunit II). By fusing heterologous proteins to different Hsp150 domains and expressing them in sec21-1 and sec21-3 mutants with temperature-sensitive mutations in the gamma-COPI subunit, we show here that the repeats of subunit II function as sorting determinants for COPI-independent ER exit. The C-terminal fragment of Hsp150 could be replaced by E. coli beta-lactamase or rat nerve growth factor receptor ectodomain (NGFRe), and subunit I could be deleted, without inhibiting COPI-independent transport. However, when the repetitive region was omitted and beta-lactamase was fused directly to the C terminus of subunit I, COPI was required for efficient ER exit. Mass spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that both subunit I and II of Hsp150 were extensively O-glycosylated, suggesting that the O-glycosylation pattern was not decisive for cargo selection. (+info
Membrane flow through the Golgi apparatus: specific disassembly of the cis-Golgi network by ATP depletion.
Incubation of NRK cells for 30 to 45 minutes with 50 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG) in glucose and pyruvate-free medium results in depletion of the cellular ATP pool and in specific disassembly of the cis-Golgi network (CGN), with the stack of Golgi cisternae (SGC) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) remaining intact and sensitive to BFA. The disassembly of the CGN is mediated by long tubular structures extending outwards from the Golgi complex and involves microtubules. Upon removal of DOG and addition of glucose and pyruvate to the culture medium, the morphology of the CGN is slowly reestablished. Reconstruction of the CGN involves COPI/COPII-positive vesicles that resume the transport of proteins and in particular of CGN membrane proteins out of the ER. Exit of CGN membrane proteins from the ER is insensitive to BFA. In cells pretreated with nocodazole, the CGN membrane proteins are transported to the vicinity of the SGC fragments dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Ultrastructural studies of cells engaged in the reconstruction of the CGN revealed that the CGN cisterna emerge as tubular structures extending from 0.2-0.3 microm uncoated vesicles prior to their organization on the cis-side of the SGC. (+info
Yeast ER-Golgi v-SNAREs Bos1p and Bet1p differ in steady-state localization and targeting.
Vesicle specific SNAP receptors (v-SNAREs) Bos1p and Bet1p are involved in targeting of anterograde vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and early Golgi of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To analyze factors that influence the targeting of these proteins, alpha-factor tagged versions of Bos1p and Bet1p were employed. The alpha-factor can be cleaved off by the Kex2p protease as soon as the hybrid proteins reach the late Golgi compartment. The data obtained by monitoring of Kex2p cleavage, by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionation showed that Bos1-alpha and Bet1-alpha have different cellular localization and dynamics. Bos1-alpha is an ER protein, which recycles between the Golgi and the ER in COPI-dependent manner. Bet1-alpha is an early Golgi protein and it does not change its localization under conditions when other recycling Golgi proteins can be trapped in the ER. (+info
gamma2-COP, a novel imprinted gene on chromosome 7q32, defines a new imprinting cluster in the human genome.
We describe a novel imprinted gene, gamma 2-COP (nonclathrincoatprotein), identified in a search for expressed sequences in human chromosome 7q32 where the paternally expressed MEST gene is located. gamma 2-COP contains 24 exons and spans >50 kb of genomic DNA. Like MEST, gamma 2-COP is ubiquitously transcribed in fetal and adult tissues. In fetal tissues, including skeletal muscle, skin, kidney, adrenal, placenta, intestine, lung, chorionic plate and amnion, gamma 2-COP is imprinted and expressed from the paternal allele. In contrast to the monoallelic expression observed in these fetal tissues, biallelic expression was evident in fetal brain and liver and in adult peripheral blood. Biallelic expression in blood is supported by the demonstration of gamma 2-COP transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines with maternal uniparental disomy 7. Absence of paternal gamma 2-COP transcripts during embryonic development may contribute to Silver-Russell syndrome. However, on mutation scanning the only gamma 2-COP mutation detected was maternally derived. Amino acid comparison of gamma2-COP protein revealed close relation to gamma-COP, a subunit of the coatomer complex COPI, suggesting a role of gamma2-COP in cellular vesicle traffic. The existence of distinct coatomer complexes could be the basis for the functional heterogeneity of COPI vesicles in retrograde and anterograde transport and/or in cargo selection. Together, gamma 2-COP and MEST constitute a novel imprinting cluster in the human genome that may contain other, as yet unknown, imprinted genes. (+info