Phosphorylated protamines. II. Circular dichroism of complexes with DNA, dependency on ionic strength. (9/10)

The influence of protamine phosphorylation upon the conformation of nucleoprotamine complexes was studied at different ionic strengths using circular dichroism. The sharp onset of CD spectral changes upon decreasing the NaC1 concentrationwas correlated with the beginning of complex formation and can be used to determine apparent binding affinities in terms of a critical ionic strength. It is show that phosphorylation strongly reduces the binding strength of protamines towards DNA. Directly mixed and reconstituted complexes reveal differences in their CD spectra, which decrease with increasing ionic strength. Spectra of complexes between threefold phosphorylated clupeine Z and DNA obtained by reconstitution or direct mixing at higher ionic strength resemble the phi-type spectra of DNA and are unique for the phosphorylated species. The implications of protamine phosphorylation for chromatin or DNA condensation havebeen discussed.  (+info)

N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase (17 kDa) and alkaline phosphatase as protein arginine phosphatases. (10/10)

Seven synthetic polymers, (Glu4, Tyr)n, (Arg)n, (Arg, Pro, Thr)n, (Arg-Gly-Glu)6, (Arg-Gly-Phe)6, (Glu-Arg-Gly-Phe)5, and (Ala-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ile-Arg-Gly-Glu-Arg)2, were treated with phosphoryl chloride to phosphorylate their Tyr, Thr, and Arg residues. Protamines and histones were phosphorylated similarly. These phosphorylated peptides were examined as to whether or not they serve as substrates for intestinal alkaline phosphatase [EC] and liver N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase [Kuba, M., Ohmori, H., and Kumon, A. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 208, 747-752]. Phosphorylated polyarginine was hydrolyzed with a lower Km with alkaline phosphatase than with N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase, while the phosphorylated forms of (Arg-Gly-Phe)6 and culpeine were better substrates for N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase. When (Arg, Pro, Thr)n and culpeine were phosphorylated chemically after treatment with phenylglyoxal, these phosphorylated peptides were worse substrates for N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase than for alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the results of proton-decoupled 31P NMR analysis indicated that N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase released Pi from N(omega)-phosphoarginine residues of phosphopeptides. These results indicate that both phosphatases function as protein arginine phosphatases in different manners, and that N(omega)-phosphoarginine phosphatase is useful for selectively detecting N(omega)-phosphoarginine residue in peptides containing various kinds of phosphorylated amino acids.  (+info)