Effects of long-term administration of clonidine on plasma renin activity.
Plasma renin activity (PRA) was studied before and during long-term treatment with moderate oral doses (0.2 or 0.3 mg/d) of clonidine. Nine outpatients with essential hypertension received clonidine for 12 weeks; a significant decrease in blood pressure was evident in all patients. Except for a nonsignificant increase after 12 weeks of treatment, PRA values were not notably changed by clonidine therapy. No correlation was found between individual blood pressure changes and PRA variation during the study. The absence of a net effect on PRA in this study does not exclude more complex interactions of clonidine with the renin-angiotensin system. Nonetheless, clonidine cannot generally be classified as a "renin-inhibiting" drug. (+info)
Modulation of basal intracellular calcium by inverse agonists and phorbol myristate acetate in rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors.
In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing alpha1d-adrenoceptors BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil decreased basal [Ca2+]i. WB 4101 induced a very small effect on this parameter but when added before the other antagonists it blocked their effect. All these agents inhibited the action of norepinephrine. Phorbol myristate acetate also blocked the effect of norepinephrine and decreased basal [Ca2+]i. Staurosporine inhibited these effects of the phorbol ester. Our results suggest that: (1) alpha1d-adrenoceptors exhibit spontaneous ligand-independent activity, (2) BMY 7378, phentolamine, chloroethylclonidine and 5-methyl urapidil act as inverse agonists and (3) protein kinase C activation blocks spontaneous and agonist-stimulated alpha1d-adrenoceptor activity. (+info)
Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine.
Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor. (+info)
Altered alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediated cardiac function after treatment of propranolol to rats.
AIM: To study inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors after 5-d propranolol (Pro) treatment. METHODS: The positive inotropic and chronotropic effects mediated by alpha 1A and alpha 1B subtypes were determined on isolated left ventricular papillary muscles and right atrium in Pro- and NaCl-treated rats. RESULTS: The basic contractility of papillary muscles induced by phenylephrine (Phe) was 90 +/- 18 mg in Pro-treated rats and 53 +/- 17 mg in control group (P < 0.05). The increment on force of contraction was 20 +/- 12 mg in Pro-pretreated rats and 5 +/- 5 mg in NaCl-treated rats (P < 0.05). After preincubated with chloroethylclonidine, the increment on force of contraction was reduced in Pro-treated rats, but was not much changed in control group. Phe in presence of 5-methylurapidil induced positive inotropic effect with 13 +/- 5 mg in Pro-treated group, but not in NaCl-treated rats. Under the normal and the inhibited cardiac state, the maximal increment in beat rate mediated by alpha 1B showed no difference between the Pro-treated and NaCl-treated rats. CONCLUSION: After chronic treatment of Pro, alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effect in rat heart was improved, which was mainly induced by stimulation of alpha 1B when beta-adrenoceptors were blocked. (+info)
Adrenoceptor agonists inhibit calcium-dependent potentials in rat stellate ganglion neurons.
AIM: To study the effects of adrenoceptor agonists on the stellate ganglion neurons. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the isolated rat stellate ganglia. RESULTS: Noradrenaline and clonidine (10-30 mumol.L-1) reversibly depressed 3 types of calcium-dependent potentials, namely, the action potential shoulder; the spike after-hyperpolarization; the Ca2+ spike evoked in Krebs' solution containing TTX and TEA and fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP). CONCLUSION: The adrenoceptor agonists inhibitied the 3 calcium-dependent potentials; f-EPSP was inhibited by reducing Ca2+ influx at presynaptic site in population of neurons. (+info)
Effects of clonidine on myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-adenyl cyclase-cAMP system after scalds in rats.
AIM: To study the role of clonidine (Clo) on the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR)-adenyl cyclase (AC)-cAMP system after the scalds in rats. METHODS: A 30% skin-full-thickness scald was produced by immersing rats in 95 degrees C water for 9 s. Clo 0.1-3.0 mg.kg-1 was injected i.p. to rats at 30 min before scalds, yohimbine (Yoh) 0.05 mg.kg-1 or prazosin (Pra) 0.03 mg.kg-1 to rats at 30 min before i.p. Clo. beta-AR density and affinity, AC activity, phosphoric diester hydrolases (PDH) activity, and cAMP content were determined with radioreceptor assay, indirect method, enzymeradiochemical assay, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Clo inhibited the decrease of the myocardial beta-AR density, the attenuation of AC activity, and the reduction of cAMP content at 12 h after the scalds. Yoh partially reversed the effects of Clo on the three parameters. But Pra did not. CONCLUSION: Clo reversed the changes of the myocardial beta-AR-AC-cAMP system resulted from the scalds in rats. (+info)
Characterization of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human umbilical vein.
1. The present study attempted to characterize pharmacologically the subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors mediating contractions in human umbilical vein (HUV). 2. HUV rings were mounted in isolated organ baths and cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and adrenaline. Adrenaline was more potent than phenylephrine (pD2=7.29 and 6.04 respectively). 3. Isoproterenol exhibited no agonism on KCl pre-contracted HUV rings. Propranolol (1 microM) and rauwolscine (0.1 microM) did not affect the concentration-response curves to adrenaline. These results demonstrate the lack of involvement of functional beta-or alpha2-adrenoceptors in adrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. 4. The non subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin was evaluated on phenylephrine and adrenaline concentration-response curves. The effects of the competitive alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the irreversible alpha1B selective compound chloroethylclonidine (CEC) were also evaluated on adrenaline concentration-response curves. 5. The potencies of prazosin against responses mediated by adrenaline (pA2= 10.87) and phenylephrine (pA2= 10.70) indicate the involvement of prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in vasoconstriction of the HUV. 6. The potencies of 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 = 6.70) and BMY 7378 (pA2= 7.34) were not consistent with the activation of an alpha1A- or alpha1D-adrenoceptor population. 7. Exposure to a relatively low CEC concentration (3 microM) abolished the maximum response to adrenaline suggesting that this response was mediated by an alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype. 8. We conclude that HUV express a prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor resembling the alpha1B-subtype according with the low pA2 values for both 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the high sensitivity to CEC. (+info)
Cardiac baroreflex during the postoperative period in patients with hypertension: effect of clonidine.
BACKGROUND: Patients with essential hypertension show altered baroreflex control of heart rate, and during the perioperative period they demonstrate increased circulatory instability. Clonidine has been shown to reduce perioperative circulatory instability. This study documents changes in measures of heart rate control after surgery in patients with essential hypertension and determines the effects of clonidine on postoperative heart rate control in these patients. METHODS: Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, 20 patients with essential hypertension (systolic pressure >160 mm Hg or diastolic pressure >95 mm Hg for > or =1 yr) were assigned to receive clonidine (or placebo), 6 microg/kg orally 120 min before anesthesia and 3 microg/kg intravenously over 60 min before the end of surgery. The spontaneous baroreflex ("sequence") technique and analysis of heart rate variability were used to quantify control of heart rate at baseline, before induction of anesthesia, and 1 and 3 h postoperatively. RESULTS: Baroreflex slope and heart rate variability were reduced postoperatively in patients given placebo but not those given clonidine. Clonidine resulted in greater postoperative baroreflex slope and power at all frequency ranges compared with placebo (4.9+/-2.9 vs. 2.2+/-2.1 ms/mm Hg for baroreflex slope, 354+/-685 vs. 30+/-37 ms2/Hz for high frequency variability). Clonidine also resulted in lower concentrations of catecholamine, decreased mean heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased perioperative tachycardia and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypertension exhibit reduced heart rate control during the recovery period after elective surgery. Clonidine prevents this reduction in heart rate control. This may represent a basis for the improved circulatory stability seen with perioperative administration of clonidine. (+info)