Sleep disturbance during the menopausal transition in a multi-ethnic community sample of women.
(65/121)STUDY OBJECTIVES: Examine age-adjusted odds and racial/ethnic differences in self-reported difficulties falling and staying asleep and early morning awakening in midlife women to determine whether difficulty sleeping increased with progression through the menopausal transition. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING: Community-based. PARTICIPANTS: 3,045 Caucasian, African American, Chinese, Japanese, and Hispanic women, aged 42-52 years and pre- or early peri-menopausal at baseline, participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-reported number of nights of difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and early morning awakening during the previous 2 weeks were obtained at baseline and 7 annual assessments. Random effects logistic regression was used to model associations between each of the 3 sleep measures and the menopausal transition, defined by bleeding patterns, vasomotor symptoms (VMS), and estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep increased through the menopausal transition, but decreased for early morning awakening from late perimenopause to postmenopause. Naturally and surgically postmenopausal women using hormones, compared with those who were not, generally had lower ORs for disturbed sleep. More frequent VMS were associated with higher ORs of each sleep difficulty. Decreasing E2 levels were associated with higher ORs of trouble falling and staying asleep, and increasing FSH levels were associated with higher ORs of trouble staying asleep. Racial/ethnic differences were found for staying asleep and early morning awakening. CONCLUSIONS: Progression through the menopausal transition as indicated by 3 menopausal characteristics--symptoms, bleeding-defined stages, and endogenous hormone levels--is associated with self-reported sleep disturbances. (+info)
Predictors of sleep quality in women in the menopausal transition.
(66/121)STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between menopausal status, reproductive hormone levels, menopausal symptoms, and poor sleep quality. DESIGN: The present study examines subjective sleep quality over an 8-year period in participants in an ongoing longitudinal study of ovarian aging in a randomly identified cohort of African American and Caucasian women. PARTICIPANTS: The Penn Ovarian Aging Study, a population-based cohort of 436 women from Philadelphia County who were 35 to 47 years of age and had regular menstrual cycles at enrollment. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome measure was the Sleep Quality factor score, derived from the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, which was adapted for this population and collected at each assessment period over the 8-year follow-up. Associations between menopausal status, reproductive hormone levels, menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, age, and race were examined in multivariable linear mixed regression models for repeated measures. Menopausal status was not significantly associated with sleep quality (P = 0.12). In the adjusted model, independent predictors of sleep quality were hot flashes (P < 0.0001), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores (P < 0.0001) and levels of the reproductive hormone inhibin B (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality was predicted by hormone levels and symptoms that occur in the menopausal transition but did not worsen with advancing menopausal status alone. Lower inhibin B levels, hot flashes, and symptoms of depression were all strong and independent predictors of difficulty sleeping. Race was not a significant contributor to sleep quality. Together, the findings demonstrate that women who experience other perimenopausal symptoms are likely to experience sleep problems during the menopausal transition. (+info)
Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures from polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
(67/121)STUDY OBJECTIVES: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. DESIGN: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. SETTING: Community-based. PARTICIPANTS: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. CONCLUSIONS: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). (+info)
Endocrine alterations in response to calorie restriction in humans.
Waist to hip ratio in middle-aged women. Associations with behavioral and psychosocial factors and with changes in cardiovascular risk factors.
(69/121)Waist to hip ratio (WHR) was measured in 487 middle-aged women participating in the Healthy Women Study. Upper body fat distribution was found to be associated with numerous behaviors that affect cardiovascular risk, including smoking, low exercise levels, weight gain during adulthood, and higher caloric intake. Moreover, WHR was also associated with higher levels of anger, anxiety, and depression and lower levels of perceived social support. Women with upper body fat obesity had higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B and lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the HDL subfractions 2 and 3. These associations remained significant after adjusting for body mass index. Among 108 women who had repeat measurements of WHR, changes in WHR over a 3-year period were significantly correlated with changes in activity and with decreases in HDL2. Thus, WHR appears to be an integral component of the cardiovascular risk profile. WHR is related to those behaviors and psychosocial attributes that influence cardiovascular risk. (+info)
Conjugated equine oestrogens and blood clotting: a follow-up report.
(70/121)A follow-up study of blood clotting and platelet aggregation was performed on 21 women who had received long-term hormone replacement treatment with conjugated equine oestrogens. The prothrombin time and factor VII and X values were significantly accelerated after three months, but there was no further increase with continual administration for 18 months. After 12 to 18 months' treatment, however, thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (Chandler's tube) was also significantly accelerated, which suggested a widening spectrum of effect. No overall acceleration of "intrinsic" clotting (partial thromboplastin time and thromboelastography) was found during the study, but the relatively small numbers may have been responsible. Further efforts are therefore required to find formulations and doses of oestrogens which, while relieving menopausal symptoms, cause less acceleration of blood clotting and platelet aggregation. (+info)
Hormone replacement therapy diminishes hearing in peri-menopausal mice.
Psychometric evaluation of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire: a self-report measure to identify chronic insomnia.
(72/121)STUDY OBJECTIVES: The objective was to psychometrically evaluate the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ), a self-report instrument designed to establish a clinically relevant case definition of insomnia consistent with widely used insomnia classification criteria, using methods from classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). METHODS: The ISQ was evaluated using IRT algorithms in a cohort of 362 pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women recruited for the SWAN (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation) Sleep Study. This yielded a dichotomous outcome consistent with the presence/absence of insomnia. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, polysomnography, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using kappa statistics, and indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV), and likelihood ratio tests (LRs). RESULTS: The ISQ identified 9.8% of the sample as meeting insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Reliability was established with Cronbach alpha (alpha = 0.89). The ISQ had high specificity (> 90%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used. Concurrent validity was not confirmed with any of the traditional sleep summary measures (kappas < 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The ISQ captures the multidimensionality of insomnia better than traditional sleep measures as it ascertains symptoms of insomnia that are based on DSM-IV and RDC criteria. The high specificities suggest that the ISQ has a high probability of correctly identifying those without insomnia and would be a cost-effective tool in large observational studies in which the prevalence of insomnia is likely to be about 10%. Further evaluation of the ISQ, including validation against clinical interviews, is warranted. (+info)