Depressive symptoms during the menopausal transition: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). (57/121)

BACKGROUND: The influence of menopausal status on depressive symptoms is unclear in diverse ethnic groups. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between changes in menopausal status and the risk of clinically relevant depressive symptoms and whether the relationship differed according to initial depressive symptom level. METHODS: 3302 African American, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese, and White women, aged 42-52 years at entry into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a community-based, multisite longitudinal observational study, were evaluated annually from 1995 through 2002. Random effects multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between menopausal status and prevalence of low and high depressive symptom scores (CES-D <16 or > or =16) over 5 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 23% of the sample had elevated CES-D scores. A woman was more likely to report CES-D > or =16 when she was early peri-, late peri-, postmenopausal or currently/formerly using hormone therapy (HT), relative to when she was premenopausal (OR range 1.30 to 1.71). Effects were somewhat stronger for women with low CES-D scores at baseline. Health and psychosocial factors increased the odds of having a high CES-D and in some cases, were more important than menopausal status. LIMITATIONS: We used a measure of current depressive symptoms rather than a diagnosis of clinical depression. Thus, we can only make conclusions about symptoms current at annual assessments. CONCLUSION: Most midlife women do not experience high depressive symptoms. Those that do are more likely to experience high depressive symptom levels when perimenopausal or postmenopausal than when premenopausal, independent of factors such as difficulty paying for basics, negative attitudes, poor perceived health, and stressful events.  (+info)

Body shape throughout life and correlations with IGFs and GH. (58/121)

Both insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and body size have been linked to premenopausal breast cancer risk. However, observational studies of IGF have not been consistent, and they suggest that perhaps earlier levels of IGF might be more strongly related to breast cancer than those measured at mid-age. We therefore sought to explore associations between several measures of body size throughout life and IGF levels in premenopausal women. We examined cross-sectional associations of birth weight, body shape (or somatotype) at ages 5 and 10, body mass index (BMI) at age 18 and adulthood, bra cup size at age 20, adult waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and attained height with plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), IGFBP-1, and GH. Participants were 592 healthy premenopausal women aged 34-52 from the Nurses' Health Study II. Using multiple linear regression, we computed least-square mean hormone levels across the categories of early life anthropometric factors. We observed consistent and strong inverse associations between body shape at various stages in life and IGF levels. Somatotype at ages 5 and 10 was inversely associated with IGF-I (P for difference, < 0.01) and positively with IGFBP-3 measured later in adulthood. Further, comparing women with a BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at age 18 vs < 19 kg/m(2), similar associations were observed for IGF-I (P for trend, 0.005) and IGFBP-3 (P for trend, 0.01), which were even stronger for BMI at blood collection (BMI< 20 versus BMI > or = 30, mean IGF-I 254 ng/ml, 95% CI, 239-271 vs 208 ng/ml, 95% CI, 195-222). Both waist circumference and WHR were strongly and inversely related to IGFBP-1 levels (top versus bottom quartile of waist circumference: 14.5 vs 40.0 ng/ml, P for trend 0.0005; WHR: 18.3 vs 39.4 ng/ml, P for trend 0.002), with similar results for bra cup size at age 20 although they did not reach statistical significance. There was no association between height and IGF or GH levels. Birth weight, on the other hand, was weakly positively associated with both IGF-I and IGFBP-1 levels, and inversely with GH. Our results suggest that childhood and adult body size may affect premenopausal breast cancer risk differently than birth weight, through associations with IGF and GH levels.  (+info)

Difference between effects of conjugated estrogen on neurotics and non-neurotics of climacteric women complaining of menopausal symptoms and its clinical application for their screening. (59/121)

In order to screen the neurotics and non-neurotics of climacteric women with menopausal symptoms, conjugated estrogen was injected intravenously and the reactions were compared. Menopausal symptoms were represented by Kupperman's menopausal index. After estrogen injection the non-neurotics showed a decrease of the index, i.e., alleviation of the symptoms, while the neurotics showed no change of the index. Taking advantage of this difference, a discriminant function between neurotics and non-neurotics was calculated using, as variables, Kupperman's menopasual indices determined before and after administration of the conjugated estrogen. The calculative screening obtained from this discriminant function yielded consistency with clinical diagnosis in about 94% of the neurotics and about 87% of the non-neurotics, suggesting that this test is of value in the screening of neurotics and non-neurotics in the climacteric women with menopausal symptoms.  (+info)

Climacteric in untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. (60/121)

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Sex hormones, sleep, and core body temperature in older postmenopausal women. (61/121)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Assessment of relationships between polysomnographic sleep, sex hormones, and core body temperature in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten women aged 57 to 71 years, at least 5 years past menopause. SETTING: Laboratory of Human Chronobiology at Weill Cornell Medical College. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Lower estradiol (E2) and higher luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly correlated with indices of poor sleep quality. Relationships between LH and polysomnographic variables were more robust than those for E2. Significant increases from basal LH levels (i.e., LH pulses) occurred more frequently after sleep onset than prior to sleep onset, and 30 of 32 of these LH pulses occurred prior to long awakenings from sleep. In addition, higher body core temperature prior to and during sleep was significantly correlated with poorer sleep efficiency and higher LH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Most investigations of relationships between sleep, sex hormones, and body temperature have focused on perimenopausal women, menopausal phenomena such as hot flashes, the role of declining estrogen, and treatment with exogenous estrogen. The current results suggest that altered levels of both sex steroids and gonadotropins may contribute to sleep disturbance in older women and confirm the results of previous studies indicating that higher body core temperature is associated with poorer sleep quality, even in women without vasomotor symptoms. The findings also raise the possibility of alternate treatment avenues for menopause- and age-related sleep disturbance that focus on altering LH levels.  (+info)

Applying a conceptual model for examining health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors: CALGB study 79804. (62/121)

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Evaluation of heart rate variability in trained and sedentary climacteric women. (63/121)

BACKGROUND: Changes in autonomic cardiac function are frequent during menopause, and various methods have been used to understand and minimize them. OBJECTIVE: To study the interference of dynamic aerobic physical activity on heart rate variability (HRV) in climacteric women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that analyzed HRV in 15 menopausal women (mean age 56.8+/-4.9 years) who had participated in physical training (one-hour walks, 3 times a week) for at least two years (active group), and 15 menopausal women (mean age 56.5 +/- 3.7 years) who were sedentary (sedentary group). None of the volunteers received hormonal replacement therapy. HRV data were compared between the groups by means of the Mann Whitney U Test. RESULTS: There were significant differences both in the frequency and time domains of the following variables of HRV (in medians) for the active e sedentary groups, respectively: total power (22,626.50 ms(2) and 4,432.10 ms(2)), low frequency component (741.20 ms(2) and 131.70 ms(2)), high frequency component (668.90 ms(2) and 131.70 ms(2)), standard deviations of RR intervals (51.60 ms and 22.50 ms), square root of the sum of squares of differences between the normal RR intervals (35.30 ms and 15.90 ms), and percentage of normal adjacent RR intervals greater than 50 ms (6.6% and 0.2%). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that aerobic training may have afforded a significant improvement in the autonomic cardiac function of the menopausal women in the active group, and may be a useful option for preserving this functional condition without the need for hormonal replacement therapy.  (+info)

Alcohol and other dietary factors in relation to serum hormone concentrations in women at climacteric. (64/121)

The relationships between concentrations of endogenous hormones in serum and dietary intakes of alcohol, fats, fiber, and caffeine were examined in 325 healthy Massachusetts women aged 50-60 y who reported having a normal menstrual period within the previous 12 mo. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hormones assayed were estrone, estradiol, percent free estradiol, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol, and gonadotropins. Alcohol intake was not associated with concentrations of estrogens or gonadotropins. Neither total fat intake nor the fat composition of the diet influenced hormone concentrations. Fiber intake was positively correlated with SHBG; no associations with estrogens were seen. Caffeine intake was inversely correlated with free estradiol and positively correlated with SHBG. These data suggest that fat, fiber, and alcohol intakes of US women at climacteric are not determinants of variations in estrone and either total or percent free estradiol.  (+info)