The pathogenesis of climacteric syndrome and principle of acupuncture treatment based on TCM theory about brain. (49/121)

The brain is the sea of marrow, stores the cerebral spirit and dominates all the life activities of the human body, which are the basic TCM knowledge about the brain. Based on this knowledge, the pathogenesis of climacteric syndrome is considered as consumption and deficiency of kidney-essence, and incoordination between the brain and kidney. The principle of acupuncture treatment should be soothing the mind and tonifying the kidney.  (+info)

Effects of acute and chronic exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the transition to reproductive senescence in female Sprague-Dawley rats. (50/121)

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can occur in polluted environments, either from smoking-related toxicants or from endogenous ligands. We tested whether acute or chronic exposure to the AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters the transition to reproductive senescence in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In experiment 1, rats (n = 6 per experimental group) received a single dose of 0 or 10 mug/kg of TCDD orally (p.o.) on Postnatal Day 29. Vaginal cytology was monitored for 1 wk each month until rats were killed at 1 yr of age. The single prepubertal exposure to TCDD hastened the transition to reproductive senescence in female rats and was associated with delayed puberty, abnormal cyclicity, and premature reproductive senescence. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to TCDD chronically through weekly dosing (0, 50, or 200 ng kg(-1) wk(-1) p.o., n = 7 each dose) beginning in utero. Lifelong exposure to these lower doses of TCDD induced a dose- and time-dependent loss of normal cyclicity and significantly hastened the onset of the transition to reproductive senescence (P < 0.05). This premature transition to reproductive senescence was associated with prolonged estrous cycles and, at the highest dose of TCDD, persistent estrus or diestrus. The number and size of ovarian follicles were not altered by TCDD. Diestrous concentrations of LH in rats exposed chronically to TCDD were similar to those in controls, whereas progesterone tended to be elevated at both doses of the dioxin (P < 0.08). Serum FSH was elevated in the group exposed to 50 ng/kg of TCDD (P < 0.02), whereas estradiol was decreased at both doses of dioxin (P < 0.01). Data thus far support endocrine disruption rather than depletion of follicular reserves as a primary mechanism of the premature transition to reproductive senescence following activation of the AHR pathway by TCDD in female rats.  (+info)

Cluster headache in women: relation with menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. (51/121)

In contrast with migraine, little is known about the relation between cluster headache and menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. A population based questionnaire study was performed among 224 female cluster headache patients, and the possible effect of hormonal influences on cluster headache attacks studied. For control data, a similar but adjusted questionnaire was sent to healthy volunteers and migraine patients. It was found that menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause had a much smaller influence on cluster headache attacks than in migraine. Cluster headache can, however, have a large impact on individual women, for example to refrain from having children.  (+info)

Psychometric properties of a tool for measuring hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors. (52/121)

Hormone-related symptoms are common in breast cancer survivors and many aspects of these symptoms are currently under study. Reliable and valid assessment tools are needed to successfully study hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors; however, no gold standard currently exists for measuring these symptoms. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) symptom checklist in a sample of 803 breast cancer survivors. Principal factor analysis with Promax oblique rotation revealed a five-factor structure, identifying five separate hormone-related symptoms scales: vasomotor symptoms, urinary incontinence, cognitive/mood changes, vaginal symptoms, and weight gain/appearance concern. Hormone-related symptom scale scores differed by demographic and clinical characteristics according to expectations, suggesting that these five scales from the shortened BCPT checklist are reasonably reliable and valid. Symptom scale scores were only weakly correlated with health-related quality of life scores; however, the pattern of results generally supported the validity of the symptom scales. This study adds to the evidence that breast cancer survivors experience a significant number of hormone-related symptoms. Future clinical trials and quality of life and symptom management intervention studies would benefit from accurate assessment of hormone-related symptoms with the five scales from the shortened BCPT checklist.  (+info)

Treatment of menopausal symptoms in family medicine settings following the Women's Health Initiative findings. (53/121)

PURPOSE: This study explores trends in treatment of menopausal symptoms and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in family medicine settings subsequent to the release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) findings. METHODS: Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to family medicine residents and faculty from 8 participating family medicine residency programs in the state of Florida. The survey asked physicians how they typically treated common menopausal symptoms in otherwise healthy menopausal women, and how their practice patterns had changed since the release of the WHI findings. We analyzed survey responses from 62 faculty and 148 residents (66% of eligible respondents). RESULTS: HRT is still prominent for treating irregular menses, vaginal dryness, vasomotor symptoms, and decreased libido. Faculty physicians were significantly more likely than residents to use HRT for menopausal symptoms. Female physicians were more likely than male physicians to say their treatment patterns had changed as a result of the WHI. CONCLUSIONS: After weighing the evidence of potential risks of HRT from the WHI study, family medicine physicians altered and broadened their strategies for treating common menopausal symptoms. Although HRT remains a prominent treatment approach, there is now more physician-patient discussion of individual risks and benefits than occurred before the WHI's release of findings.  (+info)

Duration not severity of the climacteric syndrome predicts resumption of hormone therapy after discontinuation: a prospective cohort study. (54/121)

BACKGROUND: Predictive factors of women who are unable to quit prolonged hormonal therapy (HT) are largely unknown. We sought to identify predictors for the resumption of HT after the discontinuation of treatment. METHODS: A cohort prospective study was conducted allocating menopausal women treated with HT for over 3 years. Menopausal symptoms were monitored periodically after HT cessation by the Greene climacteric scale. RESULTS: Eighty-two women participated in the study. Age, the age of menopause, BMI, HT duration, the type of regimen, reasons cited to discontinue HT and the method of discontinuation did not differ between the subjects who successfully discontinued HT and those who failed to quit HT. Only the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms when HT was first prescribed significantly differed between the groups (P = 0.03). Comparable maximal Greene score was recorded in both groups. Over time, the subjects who returned to HT had higher Greene score [Hazard ratio 1.25, confidence interval (CI) 95% (1-1.07)] and significantly higher vasomotor score [Hazard score 1.22, CI 95% (1.02-1.46)]. CONCLUSIONS: The history of hot flashes and the duration of menopausal symptoms upon HT discontinuation predict the resumption of HT. Thus, the return to HT is expected in individuals who are intolerant of prolonged climacteric syndrome.  (+info)

The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. (55/121)

PURPOSE: Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined the impact of HRT use on levels of endocrine symptoms and sexual functioning among premenopausal women who have undergone PBSO. Comparisons were made with similar women undergoing GS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Questionnaire data on endocrine symptoms and sexual functioning were obtained from 450 premenopausal, high-risk women who had participated in this nationwide, cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of women had undergone PBSO and 64% had opted for GS. In the PBSO group, 47% of the women were current HRT users. They reported significantly fewer vasomotor symptoms than nonusers (P < .05). However, compared with premenopausal women undergoing GS, oophorectomized HRT users were more likely to report vasomotor symptoms (P < .01). HRT users and nonusers reported comparable levels of sexual functioning. Compared with women in the GS group, oophorectomized HRT users reported significantly more sexual discomfort due to vaginal dryness and dyspareunia (P < .01). CONCLUSION: Although HRT has a positive impact on surgically induced vasomotor symptoms, it may be less effective than is often assumed. Symptom levels remain well above those of premenopausal women undergoing screening, and sexual discomfort is not alleviated by HRT. Physicians need to provide younger high-risk women considering PBSO with realistic information about both benefits and drawbacks of this preventive strategy, including information about premature menopause and HRT.  (+info)

Climacteric complaints among very low-income women from a tropical region of Brazil. (56/121)

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Climacteric symptoms may vary between different countries and cultures. Socioeconomic factors and climate may be implicated. The aim of this study was to identify climacteric symptomatology among very low-income Brazilian women, living in a hot and humid region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Cuiaba, at Julio Muller University Hospital, a tertiary institution. METHODS: The study enrolled 354 climacteric women. The variables analyzed were social class, symptomatology and abnormal concurrent conditions. The study was approved by the hospital's research ethics committee. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the participants (232/354) were very poor and had had little schooling. The number of symptoms per woman was 8.0 +/- 5.7. Hot flushes, nervousness, forgetfulness and fatigue were each found in nearly 60.0%. Tearfulness, depression, melancholy and insomnia were also frequent. Sexual problems were reported by 25%. The most relevant concurrent abnormal conditions reported were hypertension (33.9%), obesity (26.5%), arthritis/arthrosis (15.0%) and diabetes mellitus (9.6%). Hot flushes were associated with tearfulness, nervousness and forgetfulness. CONCLUSION: Brazilian climacteric women of low income and low schooling present multiple symptoms. Vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms were the most prevalent disorders. Hot flushes were associated with nervousness, forgetfulness and tearfulness.  (+info)