Modest protective effects of isoflavones from a red clover-derived dietary supplement on cardiovascular disease risk factors in perimenopausal women, and evidence of an interaction with ApoE genotype in 49-65 year-old women.
(33/121)Data suggest that soy protein, a source of isoflavones, may have favorable effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Women (n = 205), ages 49-65 y, were randomized into this double blind, placebo-controlled trial of 43.5 mg red clover-derived isoflavones/d. A total of 177 women completed the trial. There were no differences between treatments for changes from baseline to 12 mo in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) (P >/= 0.1). Interactions between treatment and menopausal status were significant for changes in triglycerides and PAI-1 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01), and changes were significant among perimenopausal women. In the isoflavone and placebo groups, changes in triglycerides were -0.2 +/- 0.6 and 0.4 +/- 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.02, and changes in PAI-1 were -3.06 +/- 5.88 and 4.95 +/- 6.25 IU/L, P = 0.004, respectively. Interactions between apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype and treatment tended to be significant for changes in total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05), and differences between treatments were significant in E2/E3 women. In the isoflavone and placebo groups, changes in total cholesterol were -0.61 +/- 0.79 and 0.18 +/- 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.03, and changes in LDL cholesterol were -0.84 +/- 0.79 and -0.04 +/- 0.69 mmol/L, P = 0.02, respectively. Although there were potentially beneficial changes in triglycerides and PAI-1 among perimenopausal women consuming isoflavones, this study suggests that isoflavones alone are not responsible for the well-documented effects of soy protein on blood lipids. A larger study is required to confirm the effect modification by apoE genotype. (+info)
Racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
(34/121)OBJECTIVES: We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. METHODS: Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score >/= 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P <.0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. (+info)
NAMS releases position statement on the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.
(35/121)The NAMS recommends first considering lifestyle changes, alone or combined with a nonprescription remedy (such as dietary isoflavones, vitamin E, or black cohosh) for the relief of mild vasomotor symptoms. For moderate to severe menopause-related hot flashes, prescription systemic estrogen-containing products are still the therapeutic standard. For women with concerns or contraindications to estrogen-containing products, possible treatment options include prescription progestogens, venlafaxine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, or gabapentin. (+info)
Quality of life: information and learning resources in supporting people with severe life-changing injuries to return to independence.
(36/121)This paper reports the first stages of the development of an integrated care model for people with massive sudden change in their lives with special reference to spinal cord injuries. The model aims to be holistic by placing the patient at the centre of the service. In addition to providing medical care for physical injuries, the model emphasises at the outset that regaining a good quality of life postinjury is expected. There is quality of life after change if individuals and their support network are provided with access to quality information and evidence for them to make informed choices. In New Zealand, this has been referred to as "life beyond bugger"! (+info)
A dietary and exercise intervention slows menopause-associated progression of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries.
(37/121)OBJECTIVES: The object of this study was to assess the effects of menopause and a diet/exercise intervention on subclinical atherosclerosis progression. BACKGROUND: Subclinical atherosclerosis has been linked to higher coronary heart disease and stroke rates and is greater among postmenopausal women according to cross-sectional analyses. Whether menopause is associated with an accelerated progression of subclinical disease is unknown, as is the extent to which lifestyle intervention can alter the course of progression. METHODS: Intima-media thickness (IMT) measures of the common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and bulb segments of the carotid arteries were measured twice during the course of 4 years in 353 women from the Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project, a dietary and exercise clinical trial designed to prevent adverse risk factor changes through the menopause. A third measure was obtained 2.5 years later for 113 women. RESULTS: The progression of IMT was observed for the average of all segments (AVG), the CCA, and the bulb (0.007 mm/year, 0.008 mm/year, and 0.012 mm/year; p < 0.01 for all), but not for the ICA. Among controls, menopause was associated with accelerated IMT progression (0.003 mm/year for premenopausal women vs. 0.008 mm/year for perimenopausal/postmenopausal women for AVG IMT; p = 0.049). Additionally, among the 160 perimenopausal/postmenopausal women, the intervention slowed IMT progression (0.008 mm/year for the control group vs. 0.004 mm/year for the intervention group for AVG IMT; p = 0.02). Similar results were found for the CCA and bulb segments. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the menopause transition is associated with accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis progression and that a diet/exercise intervention slows menopause-related atherosclerosis progression. (+info)
Hormones and seizures.
(38/121)The opposing effects of estrogen (proconvulsant) and progesterone (anticonvulsant) on seizure threshold have been noted in animal and human studies. Levels of these hormones fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, and, in some women with epilepsy, these fluctuations may be related to the occurrence of seizures around the time of menses or an increase in seizures in relation to the menstrual cycle, also known as catamenial epilepsy. Variations in concentrations of antiepileptic drugs across the menstrual cycle may also contribute to increased seizure susceptibility. Diagnosis of catamenial epilepsy requires careful assessment of menstrual and seizure diaries and characterization of cycle duration and type. While there are several approaches to the treatment of catamenial epilepsy, each is based on small, unblinded studies or anecdotal reports. It is important for the physician to work closely with the patient to determine whether her seizures are indeed catamenial and to design an appropriate treatment plan. (+info)
Physiology and management of the climacteric.
(39/121)Women in the climacteric should have a thorough medical investigation, reassurance, and endocrine therapy when indicated. Estrogens give prompt relief to the large number of women with sympathetic nervous system symptoms during the climacteric. Estrogens are most effective when given parenterally followed by short periods of oral administration. Estrogens should be given only for actual need and withdrawn after symptoms disappear. Androgens are useful in the immediate control of functional bleeding and also for alleviating symptoms in patients who respond poorly to estrogens or for whom estrogens are contraindicated. The addition of vitamin B to parenteral endocrine therapy apparently enhances the effect of the hormone. (+info)
Perimenopausal pneumococcal tubo-ovarian abscess--a case report and review.
(40/121)BACKGROUND: Genital tract infections in females secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are unusual. Tubo-ovarian abscess resulting from such an infection is a rare occurrence and diagnosis is not always easy. This report demonstrates the problems of recognizing this condition and summarizes the pathomechanism, investigations leading to a diagnosis and the subsequent management. CASE: A rare case of a tubo-ovarian abscess caused by pneumococcus, occurring in a previously healthy 48-year-old woman, is presented. The tubo-ovarian abscess may have developed insidiously and probably had an acute exacerbation prior to presentation. CONCLUSION: This case is unusual in that there were no identifiable initiating events for the source of the pneumococcal infection. Early recognition of a tubo-ovarian abscess is important in order to prevent the associated morbidity and mortality. This condition has the propensity to mimic a neoplasm. (+info)