Life-course body size and perimenopausal mammographic parenchymal patterns in the MRC 1946 British birth cohort. (25/121)

Dense mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Certain features of body size have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, but less is known about their relation to breast density. We investigated the association of birth size, childhood growth and life-course changes in body size with Wolfe grade in 1298 perimenopausal women from a British cohort of women born in 1946. The cohort benefits from repeated measures of body size in childhood and adulthood. We obtained mammograms for 90% of women who at age 53 years reported having previously had a mammogram. We found no associations with birth weight or maximum attained height. Body mass index (BMI) at age 53 years and breast size were independently and inversely associated with Wolfe grade (P-value for trend <0.001 for both). Women who reached puberty later were at a greater odds of a higher Wolfe grade than women who had an earlier puberty (odds ratio associated with a 1 year delay in menarche 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27, adjusted for BMI and breast size at mammography). A higher BMI at any age during childhood or adult life was associated with a reduction in the odds of a higher Wolfe grade, after controlling for breast size and BMI at mammography, for example, standardised odds ratio for height at age 7 was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.81). These findings reveal the importance of taking life-course changes in body size, and not just contemporaneous measures, into account when using mammographic density as an intermediate marker for risk of breast cancer.  (+info)

Postmenopausal bleeding of nonmalignant origin. (26/121)

A study was made of the medical records of 102 patients hospitalized because of postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic procedures used included vaginal examination, Papanicolaou smears, curettage and cervical biopsy. The major associated pathological conditions (possibly etiological factors) in the series were chronic cervicitis, fibromyoma of the uterus, endometrial polyps, cervical polyps and adenomyosis of the uterus. Sclerosis of the uterine vessels was suggested as another possible cause of this type of bleeding. Neither the amount and type of bleeding nor the pattern of associated symptoms were of diagnostic value.A history of hormonal therapy prior to the onset of bleeding is not sufficient evidence to establish that as the cause of the bleeding and the patient should be as completely investigated as if this history were not present. In over 61 per cent of cases in this series, uterine curettage with or without cervical biopsy, cauterization, conization or trachelorrhaphy, was the only treatment required for both diagnosis and therapy.  (+info)

Andropause: symptom management for prostate cancer patients treated with hormonal ablation. (27/121)

Andropause, or the age-related decline in serum testosterone, has become a popular topic in the medical literature over the past several years. Andropause includes a constellation of symptoms related to lack of androgens, including diminished libido, decreased generalized feeling of well-being, osteoporosis, and a host of other symptoms. The andropause syndrome is very prominent in men undergoing hormonal ablation therapy for prostate cancer. Most significant in this population are the side effects of hot flashes, anemia, gynecomastia, depression, cognitive decline, sarcopenia, a decreased overall quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis with subsequent bone fractures. The concept of andropause in prostate cancer patients is poorly represented in the literature. In this article, we review the current literature on the symptoms, signs, and possible therapies available to men who cannot take replacement testosterone.  (+info)

Quality of life in goserelin-treated versus cyclophosphamide + methotrexate + fluorouracil-treated premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with node-positive, early breast cancer: the Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association Trialists Group. (28/121)

PURPOSE: To compare quality of life (QoL) in premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with node-positive, early breast cancer treated with the endocrine agent goserelin (Zoladex; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE) or cyclophosphamide + methotrexate + fluorouracil (CMF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients from 86 centers worldwide were randomly assigned to receive either goserelin (3.6 mg every 28 days for 2 years; n = 514) or CMF (six 28-day cycles; n = 496), and were included in the QoL study. QoL was assessed using a self-administered patient questionnaire that consisted of 39 items from the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, including dimensions evaluating physical and psychological symptom distress, activities of daily living, hormonal effects, and an assessment of overall QoL. RESULTS: Early benefits were noted during months 3 to 6 of treatment, for goserelin compared with CMF. Significant differences were found for changes in overall QoL (eg, 6.96 +/- 0.88 v 0.69 +/- 0.92 at 6 months; P <.0001) and for physical symptom distress, activity levels, and "effort to cope with illness" dimensions. At 1, 2, and 3 years, there were no significant differences in overall QoL or specific QoL dimensions. Scores for hormonal symptoms were worse with goserelin during the 2-year goserelin treatment period; however, this trend was reversed at 3 years. CONCLUSION: Goserelin offers improved overall QoL during the first 6 months of therapy compared with CMF chemotherapy in premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with early breast cancer. Coupled with equivalent efficacy in estrogen receptor-positive patients, these data support the use of goserelin as an alternative to CMF in premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-positive early breast cancer.  (+info)

Lower estimates of net endogenous non-carbonic acid production are positively associated with indexes of bone health in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. (29/121)

BACKGROUND: The link between acid-base homeostasis and skeletal integrity has gained increasing prominence in the literature. Estimation of the net rate of endogenous non-carbonic acid production (NEAP) from dietary protein and potassium content enables exploration of the effects of dietary acidity or alkalinity on bone. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to ascertain whether lower dietary acidity (lower dietary protein intake but higher potassium intake-ie, low estimate of NEAP) was associated with greater axial and peripheral bone mass and less bone turnover, independent of key confounding factors. DESIGN: Baseline (cross-sectional) results of a population-based study were examined further. The database includes spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) in 1056 premenopausal or perimenopausal women aged 45-54 y and forearm bone mass and the urinary markers of bone resorption in 62 women. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intakes. RESULTS: Lower estimates of energy-adjusted NEAP were correlated with greater spine and hip BMD and greater forearm bone mass (P < 0.02 to P < 0.05). Hip and forearm bone mass decreased significantly across increasing quartiles of energy-adjusted NEAP (P < 0.02 to P < 0.03), and trends at the spine were similar (P < 0.09). Differences remained significant after adjustment for age, weight, height, and menstrual status. Lower estimates of energy-adjusted NEAP were also correlated with lower excretion of deoxypyridinoline and were significant predictors of spine and forearm bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings provide evidence of a positive link between a ratio of lower protein to higher potassium dietary intake (ie, less dietary acid) and skeletal integrity.  (+info)

A psychosomatic approach to the climacteric. (30/121)

Two major aspects of the climacteric in women are endocrinological changes with their effects upon the sympathetic nervous system, and psychological factors leading to anxiety with its effect upon the sympathetic nervous system. Depending upon the circumstances in each case, the interruption of the vicious cycle thereby established may require hormonal therapy, psychotherapy, or both. The mere correction of hormonal imbalance may fall far short of effective treatment.  (+info)

The clinical use of a preparation based on phyto-oestrogens in the treatment of menopausal disorders. (31/121)

In order to evaluate the efficacy of soya isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) in the treatment of the principal menopausal disorders, a double blind randomized study was performed on a sample of 50 women (with an average age of 53.3 +/- 3.1 years) with Climacteric syndrome referred to the I Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Policlinico Umberto I, Roma. The research protocol involved the random subdivision of the enrolled sample into two groups of 25 women, group 1 (with an average age of 53.3 +/- 3.5 years, and an average menopausal age of 51.6 +/- 1.8 years) and group 2 (with an average age of 53.1 +/- 2.9 years, and an average menopausal age of 51.3 +/- 1.2 years), who were to receive treatment for three months with the product being studied and with a placebo. After the three-month period, as an additional check, the group initially treated with the placebo would move to the phyto-oestrogens and viceversa. All of the patients were subjected to a series of clinical and instrumental examinations and were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their complaints, at the start, at halfway (third month) and at the end (sixth month) of the trial. The results of the evaluation of the questionnaires performed on the 47 patients who had completed the trial showed, in the first three months, an improvement in the symptoms (hot flushes) in 11 patients treated with phyto-oestrogens against 6 patients from the group that received only the placebo. In the second three-month period the hot flushes reappeared in 4 of the 11 patients who had previously seen improvements and had then passed to the placebo. In contrast, the group that passed to the phyto-oestrogens, after treatment with the placebo, experienced the disappearance of hot flushes in 11 women, including the 6 who had already improved in the first three months. There was no significant reduction in anxiety, insomnia or vaginal dryness. None of the enrolled patients indicated complaints linked to the treatment. It can be concluded that the use of a product based on phyto-oestrogens, such as the one experimented, can lead to a significant reduction in some of the disorders linked with the menopause, especially hot flushes.  (+info)

Role of the nonhuman primate for research related to women's health. (32/121)

This overview of the current status of medical problems that affect women is related to current studies on pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions using nonhuman primates to demonstrate the utility of the primate model for the study of disease processes in women. The current medical literature on women's health is compared with the literature on nonhuman primate research. The findings reviewed in the articles of ILAR Journal Volume 45 Issue 2 of 2004 are evaluated in the context of the scope and problems associated with disease entities in women. Nonhuman primate research with known information regarding women's disease is discussed, and the utility of the animal model for the study of human disease is highlighted, based on its significant relevance due to similarities of nonhuman primate and human subjects' physiology, metabolism, and responses to therapeutic interventions. Additional advantages of the animal model include the ability to control the experimental environment and the capacity to perform chronic study procedures. These findings allow us to utilize the nonhuman primate as the most relevant model in the animal world for the study of human disease processes.  (+info)